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International Symposium on Social Management Systems 2010 Kochi, Japan

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BATIK INDUSTRY IS ONE OF PEKALONGAN INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET TOWARD CREATIVE CITY By : Beta Paramita Indonesia University of Education, Bandung – West Java, Indonesia 1 Presented at 5th March, 2010 International Symposium on Social Management Systems 2010 Kochi, Japan

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INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO Indonesia is often referred to as the world's largest archipelago, a name which aptly represents its 17,000 or so islands which span more than 5000 km (around 3,200 miles) eastward from Sabang in northern Sumatra to Merauke in Irian Jaya. There are eight major islands or island groups in this enormous chain. The largest landmasses consist of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western half of Papua New Guinea). The smaller islands fall into two main groups: the Molluccas to the northeast, and the lesser Sunda chain east of Bali. Bali is a unique island, which for a number of reasons can be put into a class of its own. Located between two distinct bio-geographic groups - Asia and Australia - the flora and fauna of the archipelago is also quite idiosyncratic, including the famous Komodo dragon on the island of the same name. Also in abundance are rare flowers, including exotic orchids, unusual insects, birds of paradise and numerous indigenous spices such as cloves, nutmeg cinnamon, mace and many more 2

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Pekalongan The most population live in Java island, which is 60% of 250million inhabitants, Java island itself consist of West Java, Central Java and East Java. Jakarta (A mark) is the capital city of Indonesia, state in West Java Java Island 3

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Pekalongan is a coastal city in Central Java which is located + 350km from Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. G eographical site lies between 6°- 50' 44" South Latitude and 109°- 37' 55" until 109°- 42' 19" East Longitude and also have 45,25 km2 wide coverage of district administration . This city consist of 4 sub district, North-East-West and South Pekalongan with 46 villages. Pekalongan is a small city, but remark as a city of batik in Indonesia since this city become the biggest batik - producing city in Indonesia. Case of study WEST PEKALONGAN NORTH PEKALONGAN EAST PEKALONGAN SOUTH PEKALONGAN PEKALONGAN CITY 4

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INTRODUCTION Batik industry become one of the heart of economic power to several cities in Indonesia, since batik not only the tradition but also mean of support for Java nese since XVIII centur y . It known that Pekalongan, Cirebon, Yogyakarta, Solo and Lasem are such as batik–producing cities in Indonesia, but still Pekalongan is remark as a city of batik, because its capability to supply the demand of batik in Indonesia, most of batik which trade in the entire Indonesian market is made in Pekalongan. The batik industry it self can find in every corner of city and spread most of along west to east of Pekalongan city. There are at about 120 batik industries spread of all around Pekalongan city with 2 5 of 46 villages , the inhabitant are working for a living as a batik maker. this physical asset and human resources are the greatest potential to maintain and then developed as tourism creative industry. This potential is interesting for the writer to make a research about cultural asset management, how culture is now well established as an instrument for promoting city image, city appeal and the economy of the city 5

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picture of Pekalongan Setono Batik market Landungsari Batik industry Batik In midtown Batik in the fringe of city Central Bus station 6

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Setono Market lies by the way Jakarta to Semarang Most of visitor, come from Jakarta, Bandung and other big city Inside of Setono Market, there are + 300 kiosks selling kind of batik Stack of batik merchandise with million of turnover in a month 7

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9 Interior of Batik Owner’s house, kind of Indische architecture Landungsari area with motorcycle, bi cycle, and b ecak (trishaw) , as the main transportation One of Landungsari alley Part of house, become a section of batik industry

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SCHEMA OF STUDY 12

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BACKGROUND phenomenon : the spread of urban layout in pekalongan in correlation with the growth of batik industry actuality : the acknowledgement of batik as intangible cultural heritage of humanity from Indonesia by unesco urgency : the rise of batik industry is uncontrolled  problem in pollution, traffic, urban growth originality : there is no research found in correlation with batik pekalongan asset management THE AIM OF STUDY To figure out the empowerment of local system through the creation of cluster and district then strengthened the function of connection and supporting the development of districts of cultural and environmental heritage TARGET make batik industry classification  based on human resource, facilities and output product defining the objective and measurable, how an asset will perform  by resulting standard of service (SoS) of asset SCOPE OF STUDY this study is located at the intersection of 2 broad bodies of literature : creative city and cultural asset management spatial scope : pekalongan city, which is consist of 4districts, north, south, east and west pekalongan. SUPPORTING DATA literature statistic data MAIN DATA field collecting expert assessment DATA ANALYSIS RESULT DATA

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LITERATURE OVERVIEW The proposed study is located at the intersection of two broad bodies of literature : the creative city and the cultural asset management , then compile between them, it is tried to make performance measure of cultural asset by defining standard of service of asset (SoS). Creative City based on Culture Creative cities are usually thought of in terms that combine the cultural economy and the creative industries Why talk about creativity in relation to cities?  Creativity is not only about a continuous invention of the new, but also how to deal appropriately with the old. It have to analyses how culture is now well established as an instrument for promoting city image, city appeal and the economy of the city 2. Cultural Asset Management How to integrate cultural heritage and tourism management needs in a process that will result in a product that is appealing to visitors while at the same time conserving cultural and heritage values. It is trying to understand the dynamics of the cultural industries and how the cultural resources of cities could be used to maximize a city’s potential 14

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3. Performance Measure of Cultural Asset by defining Standard of Service (SoS) A well-defined standard of service (SoS) is the foundation of Infrastructure Asset Management. The SoS states, in objective and measurable terms, how an asset will perform, including a suitable minimum condition grade in line with the impact of asset failure. There are two parts of a well-defined Standard of Service : the minimum condition grade (CG) and a specified performance standard. The first part of standard of service is an objective, measurable specification of how the asset should perform. This would normally include a specification of the attributes of the asset which are important to its function e.g. location, type, height, capacity. The term "Levels of Service" (LoS) is used extensively in asset management planning as it enables a range of performance to be measured and recorded. The basic system uses five grades which are generic and should not be amended : Grade 1 = excellent; Grade 2 = good; Grade 3 = adequate; Grade 4 = poor; Grade 5 = awful. 15

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The spread of Batik Industries To define the standard of service of batik making, it is need to know the process of batik making. The word batik (pronounced Bateek) means "wax written“. It is a way of decorating cloth by covering part of it with a coat of wax and then dyeing it with any color which is preferably. Here, batik industry become the tangible asset to manage, in Pekalongan there are approx. 4 000 person living in textile industries which is recorded in trading department, and physically found 120 batik industries spread of all around Pekalongan city 16

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Case of Study PEKALONGAN CITY CLUSTERED OF STUDY CASE N1 N2 S1 S2 S3 E1 E2 E3 E4 W1 W2 W3 W3 W4 17

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DISTRICT : NORTH PEKALONGAN (N) Total = 7 batik industries (5.84% population) Village clustered : (N1) Degayu – Krapyak Lor – Krapyak Kidul – Panjang Wetan – Kadang Panjang - Bandengan = 0 batik industries Village Clustered : (N2) Dukuh – Kraton Lor – Pabean = 7 batik industries Figure of Batik Industry DISTRICT : SOUTH PEKALONGAN (S) Total = 40 batik industries (33.33% population) Village clusters : (S1) Yosorejo – Kuripan Lor – Soko – Duwet – Kuripan Kidul – Kertoraharjo = 0 batik industry Village Clustersed : (S2) Jenggot – Kradenan – Buaran = 29 batik industries Village Clustered : (S3) Banyuurip Alit – Banyuurip Ageng = 11 batik industries 18

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DISTRICT : EAST PEKALONGAN (E) Total : 45 batik industries (37.5% population) Village Clustered : (E1) Gamer –Baros - Sokorejo – Karangmalang – Dekoro = 8 batik industries Village Clustered : (E2) Klego – Sugihwaras – Sampangan = 14 batik industries Village Clustered : (E3) Poncol – Kauman – Keputran = 17 batik industries Village clustered : (E4) Noyontaan – Landungsari = 6 industries 19

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DISTRICT : WEST PEKALONGAN (W) Total : 28 batik industries (23.33% population) Village clustered : (W1) Kergon – Bendan – Sapuro – Podosugih = 13 batik industries Village Clustered : (W2) Kebulen – Medono = 5 batik industries Village Clusters : (W3) Pringlangu – Tegalrejo – Bumirejo = 1 batik industries Village clustered : (W4) Tirto – Pasirsari = 7 industries Village clusters : (W5) Keraton Kidul – Kramatsari= 2 industries

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Batik Industry Superimpose map of Pekalongan with historical batik development 21

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Zoning of Study Based on field collecting data, the clustered villages made into 4 zoning. The division of this zoning were made base on : architectural characteristic geographical location the amount of human resources the facilities of batik industry Zoning of the study, are : Central city which is consist of 12 villages Fringe of city which is consist of 15 villages Textile goods which is consist of 2 villages Market zone which is consist of 5 villages 22

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23 Consideration of zoning division Central of city Fringe of city Textile Goods Market Zone Architectural character Indische – built in 1920-1950 Local Modern – built in 1990-2002 Local Modern – built in 1990-2002 Modern – built after 2003 Human resources 10-15 person 20-50 person 15-20 person 3 - 5 person Showroom Own house Central market Own house and central market Central market Market Regional, National, I nternational Local, Regional Regional Regional Product of batik Hand written, s tamp and printing batik Hand written, s tamp and printing batik Stuff for textile goods Stamp and printing batik Location potential Expensive , strategic area Inexpensive land, non residential zone Near central city, located in cluster area Near central market, connected to main traffic lane

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