Chemical Reaction

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Chemical Equations Chapter 8 :

1 Chemical Equations Chapter 8 Arjun & Manoj Kumar Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College © John Wiley and Sons, Inc Version 2.0 12 th Edition

Chapter Outline:

2 Chapter Outline 8.1 The Chemical Equation 8.2 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 8.3 Information in a Chemical Equation 8.4 Types of Chemical Equations 8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions

Slide 3:

3 Chemists use chemical equations to describe reactions they observe in the laboratory or in nature. Chemical equations provide us with the means to summarize the reaction display the substances that are reacting show the products indicate the amounts of all component substances in a reaction.

8.1 The Chemical Equation:

4 8.1 The Chemical Equation

Slide 5:

5 Chemical reactions always involve change. Atoms, molecules or ions rearrange to form different substances. The substances entering the reaction are called reactants . The substances formed in the reaction are called products . During reactions, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.

Slide 6:

6 A chemical equation uses the chemical symbols and formulas of the reactants and products and other symbolic terms to represent a chemical reaction. A chemical equation is a shorthand expression for a chemical change or reaction.

Slide 7:

7 Al + Fe 2 O 3  Fe + Al 2 O 3 reactants products Al + Fe 2 O 3  Fe + Al 2 O 3 Chemical Equation iron oxygen bonds break aluminum oxygen bonds form

Slide 8:

8 Coefficients (whole numbers) are placed in front of substances to balance the equation and to indicate the number of units (atoms, molecules, moles, or ions) of each substance that are reacting.

Slide 9:

9 Al + Fe 2 O 3  Fe + Al 2 O 3 coefficient 2 2 coefficient

Slide 10:

10 Conditions required to carry out the reaction may be placed above or below the arrow.

Slide 11:

11 Al + Fe 2 O 3  Fe + Al 2 O 3 coefficient 2 2 coefficient   heat

Slide 12:

12 The physical state of a substance is indicated by symbols such as ( l ) for liquid.

Slide 13:

13 2Al( s ) + Fe 2 O 3 ( s )  2 Fe( l ) + Al 2 O 3 ( s ) All atoms present in the reactant must also be present in the products. In a chemical reaction atoms are neither created nor destroyed. ( s ) ( s ) ( s ) ( s )

Symbols Used in Chemical Reactions:

14 Symbols Used in Chemical Reactions

Slide 15:

15 placed between substances + symbol plus meaning location

Slide 16:

16  symbol yields meaning between reactants and products location

Slide 17:

17 ( s ) symbol solid meaning after formula location

Slide 18:

18 ( l ) symbol liquid meaning location after formula

Slide 19:

19 ( g ) symbol gas meaning location after formula

Slide 20:

20 ( aq ) symbol aqueous meaning after formula location

Slide 21:

21  symbol heat meaning written above or below  location

Slide 22:

22 h  symbol light energy meaning written above  location

Slide 23:

23  symbol gas formation meaning after formula location

8.2 Writing and Balancing Equations:

24 8.2 Writing and Balancing Equations

Slide 25:

25 To balance an equation adjust the number of atoms of each element so that they are the same on each side of the equation. Never change a correct formula to balance an equation.

Steps for Balancing Equations:

26 Steps for Balancing Equations

Slide 27:

27 Step 1 Identify the reaction. Write a description or word equation for the reaction. Mercury (II) oxide decomposes to form mercury and oxygen. mercury(II) oxide → mercury + oxygen

Slide 28:

28 HgO  Hg + O 2 The formulas of the reactants and products must be correct. The reactants are written to the left of the arrow and the products to the right of the arrow. Step 2 Write the unbalanced (skeleton) equation. The formulas of the reactants and products can never be changed.

Slide 29:

29 Step 3a Balance the equation. Count and compare the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation. Determine the elements that require balancing.

Slide 30:

30 HgO → Hg + O 2 Step 3a Balance the equation. There is one mercury atom on the reactant side and one mercury atom on the product side. Mercury is balanced. Element Reactant Side Product Side Hg 1 1

Slide 31:

31 Element Reactant Side Product Side O 1 2 Step 3a Balance the equation. There are two oxygen atoms on the product side and there is one oxygen atom on the reactant side. Oxygen needs to be balanced. HgO  Hg + O 2

Slide 32:

32 Step 3b Balance the equation. Balance each element one at a time, by placing whole numbers (coefficients) in front of the formulas containing the unbalanced element. A coefficient placed before a formula multiplies every atom in the formula by that coefficient.

Slide 33:

33 Element Reactant Side Product Side O 1 2 Oxygen (O) is balanced . Step 3b Balance the equation. Place a 2 in front of HgO to balance O . There are two oxygen atoms on the reactant side and there are two oxygen atoms on the product side. HgO  Hg + O 2 2 2

Slide 34:

34 Step 3c Balance the equation. Check all other elements after each individual element is balanced to see whether, in balancing one element, another element became unbalanced.

Slide 35:

35 Element Reactant Side Product Side Hg 2 1 Count and compare the number of mercury (Hg) atoms on both sides of the equation . Step 3c Balance the equation. Mercury (Hg) is not balanced. 2HgO  Hg + O 2 There are two mercury atoms on the reactant side and there is one mercury atom on the product side.

Slide 36:

36 2HgO  Hg + O 2 Step 3c Balance the equation. Place a 2 in front of Hg to balance mercury. Mercury (Hg) is balanced. There are two mercury atoms on the reactant side and there are two mercury atoms on the product side. Element Reactant Side Product Side Hg 2 1 2 2

Slide 37:

37 2HgO  2Hg + O 2 Element Reactant Side Product Side Hg 2 2 O 2 2  THE EQUATION IS BALANCED 

Slide 38:

38 sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide → sodium sulfate + water Balance the Equation

Slide 39:

39 There is one Na on the reactant side and there are two Na on the product side. Reactant Side Product Side 1 1 Na 1 2 O 1 1 H 3 2 2 H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) → Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) 2 Place a 2 in front of NaOH to balance Na. Balance the Equation 2 4

Slide 40:

40 H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + NaOH( aq ) → Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) There are 4 H on the reactant side and two H on the product side. Reactant Side Product Side 1 1 Na 2 2 O 2 1 H 4 2 2 Place a 2 in front of H 2 O to balance H. 2 2 4  THE EQUATION IS BALANCED 

Slide 41:

41 butane + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water Balance the Equation

Slide 42:

42 C 4 H 10 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) → CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) There are four C on the reactant side and there is one C on the product side. Reactant Side Product Side C 4 1 H 10 2 O 2 3 4 Place a 4 in front of CO 2 to balance C. 9 4 Balance the Equation

Slide 43:

43 C 4 H 10 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) → CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) There are 10 H on the reactant side and there are two H on the product side. Reactant Side Product Side C 4 4 H 10 2 O 2 9 Place a 5 in front of H 2 O to balance H. 4 5 10 13

Slide 44:

44 C 4 H 10 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) → CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) There is no whole number coefficient that can be placed in front of O 2 to balance O. Reactant Side Product Side C 4 4 H 10 10 O 2 13 To balance O, double the coefficients of each substance other than oxygen. 20 20 8 8 26 10 5 4 5 2 10 8

Slide 45:

45 There are now 26 O on the product side. Reactant Side Product Side C 8 8 H 20 20 O 2 26 13 Place a 13 in front of O 2 to balance O. 26  THE EQUATION IS BALANCED  C 4 H 10 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) → CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) 2 8 10

8.3 Information in a Chemical Equation:

46 8.3 Information in a Chemical Equation

The meaning of a formula is context dependent. :

47 The meaning of a formula is context dependent. The formula H 2 O can mean: 2H and 1 O atom 1 molecule of water 1 mol of water 6.022 x 10 23 molecules of water 18.02 g of water

In an equation, formulas can represent units of individual chemical entities or moles.:

48 In an equation, formulas can represent units of individual chemical entities or moles. H 2 + Cl 2 2HCl → 1 molecule H 2 1 molecule Cl 2 2 molecules HCl 1 mol H 2 1 mol Cl 2 2 mol HCl

Slide 49:

49 Formulas Number of molecules Number of atoms Number of moles Molar masses

8.4 Types of Chemical Equations:

50 8.4 Types of Chemical Equations

Slide 51:

51 Combination Decomposition Single-Displacement Double-Displacement

Combination Reactions:

52 Combination Reactions

Slide 53:

53 A + B  AB Two reactants combine to form one product.

54 Examples

Slide 55:

55 2Ca( s ) + O 2 ( g )  2CaO( s ) Metal + Oxygen → Metal Oxide 4Al( s ) + 3O 2 ( g )  2Al 2 O 3 ( s )

Slide 56:

56 S( s ) + O 2 ( g )  SO 2 ( g ) Nonmetal + Oxygen → Nonmetal Oxide N 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g )  2NO( g )

Slide 57:

57 2K( s ) + F 2 ( g )  2KF( s ) Metal + Nonmetal → Salt 2Al( s ) + 3Cl 2 ( g )  2AlCl 3 ( s )

Slide 58:

58 Na 2 O( s ) + H 2 O( l )  2NaOH( aq ) Metal Oxide + Water → Metal Hydroxide CaO( s ) + 2H 2 O( l )  2Ca(OH) 2 ( aq )

Slide 59:

59 SO 3 ( g ) + H 2 O( l )  H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) Nonmetal Oxide + H 2 O(l) → Oxy-acid N 2 O 5 ( g ) + H 2 O( l )  2HNO 3 ( aq )

Decomposition Reactions:

60 Decomposition Reactions

Slide 61:

61 AB  A + B A single substance breaks down to give two or more different substances.

62 Examples

Slide 63:

63 2Ag 2 O( s )  4Ag( s ) + O 2 ( g ) Metal Oxide → Metal + Oxygen Metal Oxide → Metal Oxide + Oxygen 2PbO 2 ( s )  2PbO( s ) + O 2 ( g )

Slide 64:

64 Carbonate → CO 2 (g) CaCO 3 ( s )  CaO( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2NaHCO 3 ( s )  Na 2 CO 3 ( s ) + H 2 O( g ) + CO 2 ( g ) Hydrogen Carbonate → CO 2 (g)

Slide 65:

65 Miscellaneous Reactions 2KClO 3 ( s )  2KCl( s ) + 3O 2 ( g ) 2NaNO 3 ( s )  2NaNO 2 ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2H 2 O 2 ( l )  2H 2 O( l ) + O 2 ( g )

Single Displacement Reactions:

66 Single Displacement Reactions

Slide 67:

67 A + BC  A C + B One element reacts with a compound to replace one of the elements of that compound.

Slide 68:

68 Mg( s ) + 2HCl( aq )  H 2 ( g ) + MgCl 2 ( aq ) 2Al( s ) + 3H 2 SO 4 ( aq )  3H 2 ( g ) + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ( aq ) salt Metal + Acid → Hydrogen + Salt salt

Slide 69:

69 2Na( s ) + 2H 2 O( l )  H 2 ( g ) + 2NaOH( aq ) Ca( s ) + 2H 2 O( l )  H 2 ( g ) + Ca(OH) 2 ( aq ) Metal + Water → Hydrogen + Metal Hydroxide metal hydroxide metal hydroxide

Slide 70:

70 Metal + Water → Hydrogen + Metal Oxide metal oxide 3Fe( s ) + 4H 2 O( g )  4H 2 ( g ) + Fe 3 O 4 ( s )

The Activity Series:

71 The Activity Series

Slide 72:

72 Metals K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb H Cu Ag Hg An atom of an element in the activity series will displace an atom of an element below it from one of its compounds . Sodium (Na) will displace an atom below it from one of its compounds. increasing activity

Examples Metal Activity Series:

73 Examples Metal Activity Series

Slide 74:

74 Mg(s) + PbS(s)  MgS(s) + Pb(s) Metal Higher in Activity Series Displacing Metal Below It Magnesium is above lead in the activity series. Metals Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb

Slide 75:

75 Ag( s ) + CuCl 2 ( s )  no reaction Metal Lower in Activity Cannot Displace Metal Above It Metals Pb H Cu Ag Hg Silver is below copper in the activity series.

Example Halogen Activity Series:

76 Example Halogen Activity Series

Slide 77:

77 Cl 2 ( g ) + CaBr 2 ( s )  CaCl 2 ( aq ) + Br 2 (aq) Halogen Higher in Activity Series Displaces Halogen Below It Halogens F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 Chlorine is above bromine in the activity series.

Double Displacement Reactions:

78 Double Displacement Reactions

Slide 79:

79 AB + CD  AD + CB Two compounds exchange partners with each other to produce two different compounds. The reaction can be thought of as an exchange of positive and negative groups. A displaces C and combines with D B displaces D and combines with C

The Following Accompany Double Displacement Reactions:

80 The Following Accompany Double Displacement Reactions formation of a precipitate release of gas bubbles release of heat formation of water

81 Examples

Slide 82:

82 Acid Base Neutralization HCl( aq ) + NaOH( aq )  NaCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + 2NaOH( aq )  Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + 2H 2 O( l ) acid + base → salt + water

Slide 83:

83 Formation of an Insoluble Precipitate AgNO 3 ( aq ) + NaCl( aq )  AgCl( s ) + NaNO 3 ( aq ) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2KI( aq )  PbI 2 ( s ) + 2KNO 3 ( aq )

Slide 84:

84 Metal Oxide + Acid CuO( s ) + 2HNO 3 ( aq )  Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) CaO( s ) + 2HCl( aq )  CaCl 2 ( s ) + H 2 O( l ) metal oxide + acid → salt + water

Slide 85:

85 Formation of a Gas H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + 2NaCN( aq)  Na 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + 2HCN( g ) NH 4 Cl( aq ) + NaOH( aq)  NaCl( aq ) + NH 4 OH( aq ) NH 4 OH( aq )  NH 3 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) indirect gas formation

8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions:

86 8.5 Heat in Chemical Reactions

Energy changes always accompany chemical reactions.:

87 Energy changes always accompany chemical reactions. One reason why reactions occur is that the product attains a lower energy state than the reactants. When this occurs, energy is released to the surroundings.

Slide 88:

88 H 2 ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g) → 2HCl( g ) + 185 kJ ( exothermic ) N 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g) + 185 kJ → 2NO( g ) ( exothermic ) Exothermic reactions liberate heat. Endothermic reactions absorb heat. The amounts of substances are expressed in moles. 1 mol 1 mol 2 mol 1 mol 1 mol 2 mol

For life on Earth the sun is the major provider of energy.:

89 For life on Earth the sun is the major provider of energy. The energy for plant photosynthesis is derived from the sun. glucose glucose 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 2519 kJ → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

Energy of Activation:

90 Energy of Activation

Slide 91:

91 A certain amount of energy is always required for a reaction to occur. The energy required to start a reaction is called the energy of activation.

Slide 92:

92 This reaction will not occur unless activation energy is supplied. The activation energy can take the form of a spark or a flame. CH 4 + 2O 2 → CO 2 + 2H 2 O + 890 kJ

93 8.3 8.2

94 The End