Industrial Microbiology overview

Views:
 
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Introduction to Industrial Microbiology : 

Introduction to Industrial Microbiology By Dr Bela Nabar Associate Professor of Microbiology Coordinator Department of Biotechnology Smt CHM College Ulhasnagar-Dist Thane India

Microbial processes used long (>4000 years) before development of microbiology as a scienceremnants of a fermented drink in fragments of9,000-year-old Chinese vesselsBread was baked around 4000 BCLouis Pasteur: 1857: Microbiology of lactic acids fermentations 1860 Role of yeast in ethanolic fermentation1861 : Butyric acid fermentation1928:Alexander Fleming –Antibiotics1940:Waksman -Streptomycin : 

Microbial processes used long (>4000 years) before development of microbiology as a scienceremnants of a fermented drink in fragments of9,000-year-old Chinese vesselsBread was baked around 4000 BCLouis Pasteur: 1857: Microbiology of lactic acids fermentations 1860 Role of yeast in ethanolic fermentation1861 : Butyric acid fermentation1928:Alexander Fleming –Antibiotics1940:Waksman -Streptomycin

History of Industrial Microbiology : 

History of Industrial Microbiology A period of ignorance( 1800) A period of discovery (1800-1900) A period of industrial development(post1900).

Concept of industrial Fermentation : 

Concept of industrial Fermentation

What is fermentation? : 

What is fermentation? Pasteur’s definition: “life without air”, anaerobe red ox reactions in organisms New definition: a form of metabolism in which the end products could be further oxidized Any Microbe requires Water, Oxygen, Energy source, Carbon source, Nitrogen source and Micronutrients for the growth. Carbon & Energy source + Nitrogen source + O2 + other requirements → Biomass + Product + byproducts + CO2 + H2O + heat

Definition of Fermentation: : 

Definition of Fermentation: Fermentation technology is the oldest of all biotechnological processes. The term is derived from the Latin verb fevere, to boil--the appearance of fruit extracts or malted grain acted upon by yeast, during the production of alcohol. Fermentation is a process of chemical change caused by organisms or their products, usually producing effervescence and heat. Microbiologists consider fermentation as 'any process for the production of a product by means of mass culture of micro-organisms'. Biochemists consider fermentation as 'an energy-generating process in which organic compounds act both as electron donors and acceptors'; Hence fermentation is ‘an anaerobic process where energy is produced without the participation of oxygen or other inorganic electron acceptors’.

Industrial Unit : 

Industrial Unit

Outline of a fermentation process : 

Outline of a fermentation process

. : 

.

Downstream Process : 

Downstream Process

Steps in fermentation : 

Steps in fermentation Fermentor selection Microbial Strain selection Fermentation Media Selection Fermentation process Upstream processing Downstream processing Quality Control & Assurance Product Recovery Packaging

Fermentor Selection : 

Fermentor Selection .

Fermentor stage Shape Material Size : 

Fermentor stage Shape Material Size

Labscale Fermentor : 

Labscale Fermentor

Pilot Scale Fermentor : 

Pilot Scale Fermentor

Production tanks : 

Production tanks

. : 

.

A bioreactor differs from a fermenter in that the former is used for the mass culture of plant or animal cells, instead of micro-organisms : 

A bioreactor differs from a fermenter in that the former is used for the mass culture of plant or animal cells, instead of micro-organisms

Parts of a fermentorImpeller : 

Parts of a fermentorImpeller

Agitation : 

Agitation Instead of a traditional propeller agitator a new vibromixer is used. A strong motor moves one or more stirring discs up and down. The major advantage is an efficient mixing and aeration of the culture medium together with very complete separation of the inside of the vessel from the outside by a low cost silicone membrane. No vortex is built up and baffles are eliminated.This type of agitation is also gentler on the cells and foaming is reduced with max mixing efficiency . The frequency of agitation is controlled by a microprocessor and can be varied through a broad range.

Air input/Sparger : 

Air input/Sparger The flow rate can be set from 0 to 5 l/min in 0.1 l/min steps. A precise mass-flow meter is used. Commonly used floating ball capillaries (rotameters) give accurate readings in this case. A self-cleaning elastic air micro-sparger has been developed. Its special construction allows an automatic elimination of salt deposits, which would block the airflow in normal spargers. This is important particularly for micro-spargers having very narrow channels.

load cell : 

load cell A load cell is a transducer that is used to convert a force into electrical signal. The strain gauge converts the deformation (strain) to electrical signals. A load cell usually consists of four strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.The electrical signal output is in millivolts and requires amplification by an instrumentation amplifier. The output of the transducer is plugged into an algorithm to calculate the force applied to the transducer.

Baffles : 

Baffles

Temperature control : 

Temperature control A new infrared (IR) radiator with a gilded parabolic reflector is used to warm the culture broth. The heat radiation (150W) is concentrated on the bottom of the vessel where it is absorbed by the medium in a similar way to the sun heating water. There is no overheating at any volume of the culture. overshooting of the temperature is reduced & the Temperature can be controlled more precisely. The temperature sensor is placed directly in the pH sensor and is used at the same time for an automatic correction of pH and pO2 electrodes.

pH measurement and control : 

pH measurement and control pH is measured by a combined, sterilizable pH electrode with incorporated temperature sensor. Due to multiple Variopin plug it can be sterilized without any protection. The pH value has an automatic temperature correction. The addition of acid or base is controlled by a microprocessor.

pO2 measurement & regulation : 

pO2 measurement & regulation A sterilizable Clark-type electrode with large cathode measures the concentration of dissolved oxygen with a glass reinforced TEFLON membrane giving fast response times and short polarization. The microprocessor performs a semiautomatic two-point calibration with automatic temperature compensation. The regulation of dissolved oxygen is obtained by a variation of the flow rate of air.

Continuous fermentation (chemostat) : 

Continuous fermentation (chemostat) A scale adaptor allows weighing of the fermentor. It is simply placed under the front part of the fermentor body and connected to the X-channel input of the fermentor. By means of a pump connected to the fermentor, the weight (volume) of the culture can be kept constant. This allows the running of continuous cultures at low cost.

Gas flow controller : 

Gas flow controller Flow controller system specially designed for the use together with laboratory bioreactors and fermentors. It allows the control of pH of cell culture by controlled addition of gaseous CO2, control of nitrogen or of any other gas with suitable controller. A high quality laminar mass flow sensor measures the flow rate given by the digital display controlled by a microprocessor. The flow rate can be programmed & volume totalized.

High-quality peristaltic pumps : 

High-quality peristaltic pumps They are connected by a single cable to the sockets on the rear side of the fermentor. Since the pumps are not integrated into the fermentor they can be used for other applications elsewhere in the laboratory (e.g. for chromatography etc.). This represents considerable savings for the user. A new connection system provides double sealing of the tubing and, therefore, reduces strongly the contamination probability during the transfer of solutions into the vessel.

Inoculation and sampling ports : 

Inoculation and sampling ports Inoculation, addition of acid or base and sample removal is made through four stainless steel capillaries equipped with double seal fittings.

Measurement and regulation : 

Measurement and regulation The control panel consists of an LCD display and control buttons. All parameters (temperature, pH, pO2, air flow rate, agitation and one free selectable parameter, e.g. pCO2, optical density, antifoam etc.) are visible at a glance on a large LCD back light display . The limits of low or/and high alarm can be set. After alarm activation an acoustic signal is heard, the indication appears on the display and an electric signal is generated on the rear side connector of the fermentor. Each fermentor can be coupled to a PC thus unlimited possibilities for control and data processing.

Steam line : 

Steam line Sterilization by Steam

Foam sensors : 

Foam sensors This is the only instrument for foam analysis based on the pressure drop technique . The important feature is that due to the applied partial vacuum the foam in the measuring cells is essentially homogeneous over the whole foam column. measure the most important foam parameter in terms of foam stability and foam lifetime at constant capillary pressure in the liquid phase of the foam

Sensors : 

Sensors Air Leak Sensor Thermal Sensor Pressure sensing sensor

Selection of Microbial strain for the fermentor : 

Selection of Microbial strain for the fermentor

Microbial Strain Selection : 

Microbial Strain Selection

Microbial Strain Selection : 

Microbial Strain Selection

Requirements for the growth & fermentation of the strain : 

Requirements for the growth & fermentation of the strain

Slide 46: 

.

Fermentation Media : 

Fermentation Media

Fermentation Media : 

Fermentation Media

Types of Media : 

Types of Media

Ethanol production from several substrates : 

Ethanol production from several substrates

Inoculum developement : 

Inoculum developement

. : 

.

Batch Fermentation : 

Batch Fermentation

Types of Fermentors-Tower fermentor : 

Types of Fermentors-Tower fermentor

Trickling filter : 

Trickling filter

Bioreactor : 

Bioreactor

Frings Generator : 

Frings Generator

Rotating Drum Bioreactor : 

Rotating Drum Bioreactor

Cavitator : 

Cavitator

Air lift Fermentor : 

Air lift Fermentor

Bubble Cap Fermentor : 

Bubble Cap Fermentor

Horton Spheres : 

Horton Spheres

Activated sludge Fermentor : 

Activated sludge Fermentor

Thanks : 

Thanks For the Patient hearing .

authorStream Live Help