first aid

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Basic Principles of First Aid:

Basic Principles of First Aid

Chain of Survival:

Chain of Survival Early Access”911” Early CPR or First Aid You Early Defibrillation EMS on scene Early Advanced Care Hospital In order for a person to survive: Pay attention to: HISTORY; what happened; from the casualty or bystanders SYMPTOMS; what only the casualty can tell you SIGNS; what you can see for yourself

Securing the scene:

Securing the scene 1. Electrical hazards 2. Chemical hazards 3. Noxious & Toxic gases 4. Ground hazards 5. Fire 6. Unstable equipment Before performing any First Aid, Check for:

Fundamentals of First Aid:

Fundamentals of First Aid Activate EMS System “911” 1. ABC (airway-breathing-circulation) 2. Control bleeding 3. Treat for Shock (medical emergencies) 4. Open wounds & Burns 5. Fractures & Dislocations 6. Transportation

Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Major Medical Emergencies:

Signs, Symptoms and Treatment of Major Medical Emergencies

Heart Attack:

Heart Attack Signals may include; persistent chest pain pain often radiates to left shoulder and arm shortness of breath bluish color of lips and fingernails


Stroke Signals may include; unconsciousness limp facial muscles weakness of one side of body breathing difficulty unequal pupils speech impairment

Treatment for Heart Attack/Stroke:

Treatment for Heart Attack/Stroke Call for help or 911 Pulse, but is not breathing start R.B. No pulse or breathing start CPR If on medication, get for them Keep warm and in sitting position

Diabetic emergencies:

Diabetic emergencies Insulin Shock (Hypoglycemia) Result of insufficient sugar- Fast onset Cold clammy skin, pale, rapid respiration's and pulse, incoherent Treat by giving sugar bases products Diabetic coma (Ketoacidosis) Too much sugar or insufficient insulin- Slow onset Warm, dry skin, slow respiration's, smell of rotten fruit on breath True medical emergency, activate EMS system immediately Find out if victim has past diabetic history

Seizure Disorder:

Seizure Disorder Not a disease Sign of an underlying defect, injury or disease Epilepsy is one condition which results in seizures Signs/Symptoms Possible loss of consciousness Convulsions Severe spasms Vomiting Pale before and bluish during seizure Loud labored breathing Short lived, but followed up by another

Treatment of Seizure Disorder:

Treatment of Seizure Disorder keep person calm do not restrain protect, but do not hold nothing in mouth after ensure airway is open place on side if no spinal injuries protect from embarrassment transport to medical facility

Anaphylactic Shock:

Anaphylactic Shock Eating or drinking Inhalation Injection Absorption The more common allergic reactions are the result of; bee stings shell fish medications

Anaphylactic Shock:

Anaphylactic Shock Full fledge emergency Get help now Look for medical tags Time is not on your side Signs/Symptoms state of awareness skin irritation, burning, itching, etc. headache weakness difficulty breathing abnormal pulse rate chills and fever profuse sweating vomiting muscle cramps, chest tightening

Control of Bleeding:

Control of Bleeding

Types of Bleeding:

Types of Bleeding Veins Capillary Spurting Steady flow Oozing Artery Internal Injuries

Control of Bleeding:

Control of Bleeding Direct Pressure Elevation Cold Applications Pressure bandage

Pressure Points:

Pressure Points Where the artery passes over a bone close to the skin Temporal Facial Carotid Sub-clavian Brachial Radial Ulnar Femoral Popliteal Pedal

Treatment of Various Wounds, Burns, and Musculoskeletal Skeletal Injuries :

Treatment of Various Wounds, Burns, and Musculoskeletal Skeletal Injuries

Types of Wounds:

Types of Wounds


Burns Thermal burns Cool application Cool application Don’t break blisters Dry sterile dressing, treat for shock

Slide 21:

Severe Burns and Scalds Treatment: Lay the casualty down and make him as comfortable as possible, protecting burn area from ground contact. Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing from the injured area before it begins to swell. Cover the injured area loosely with sterile unmediated dressing or similar non fluffy material and bandage. Don't remove anything that is sticking to the burn. Don't apply lotions, ointments, butter or fat to the injury. Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere with the injured area. Don't over-cool the patient and cause shivering. If breathing and heartbeat stop, begin resuscitation immediately, If casualty is unconscious but breathing normally, place in the recovery position. Treat for shock . Send for medical attention.

Slide 22:

Minor Burns and Scalds Treatment: Place the injured part under slowly running water, or soak in cold water for 10 minutes or as long as pain persists. Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, and shoes from the injured area before it starts to swell. Dress with clean, sterile, non fluffy material. Don't use adhesive dressings. Don't apply lotions, ointments or fat to burn/ scald. Don't break blisters or otherwise interfere. If in doubt, seek medical aid.

Slide 23:

Chemical Burns Treatment: Flood the area with slowly running water for at least ten minutes. Gently remove contaminated clothing while flooding injured area, taking care not to contaminate yourself. Continue treatment for SEVERE BURNS Remove to hospital.

Fractures & Dislocations:

Fractures & Dislocations Must treat for bleeding first Do not push bones back into place Don’t straighten break Treat the way you found it

Slide 25:

IF A DISLOCATION IS SUSPECTED... 1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving. 2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow bloodflow to the area 3. A doctor should be contacted to have the bone set back into its socket. The most common dislocations occur in the shoulder, elbow, finger, or thumb. Dislocations LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS: 1. swelling 2. deformed look 3. pain and tenderness 4. possible discoloration of the affected area


Splints Must be a straight line break Can be formed to shape of deformity Be careful of temperature change

Slide 27:

PROPER CARE: 1. While waiting on help to arrive, keep the victim lying down in the recovery position 2. Control any bleeding, and be sure that he is breathing properly. 3. Do not give the victim any liquids to drink. 4. If the victim becomes unconscious for any amount of time, keep track of this information so that you can report it when medical help arrives. Head Injuries A sharp blow to the head could result in a concussion, a jostling of the brain inside its protective, bony covering. A more serious head injury may result in contusions, or bruises to the brain. OTHER SYMPTOMS TO LOOK FOR IF YOU SUSPECT A VICTIM MAY HAVE A BRAIN INJURY: 1. clear or reddish fluid draining from the ears, nose, or mouth 2. difficulty in speaking 3. headache 4. unequal size of pupils 5. pale skin 6. paralysis of an arm or leg (opposite side of the injury) or face (same side of the injury)

Neck & Spinal Injuries:

Neck & Spinal Injuries CARE AND TREATMENT ABC extreme care in initial examination — minimal movement urgent ambulance transport apply cervical collar treat for shock treat any other injuries maintain body heat if movement required, 'log roll' and use assistants always maintain casualty's head in line with the shoulders

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