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Premium member Presentation Transcript hybridisation : hybridisation Definition : Definition Hybridisation is a process in which two or more valence shells of an atom mix up to form an equal number of identical orbitals of same energy levels. Hybridised orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of molecular orbitals for molecules. It is an integral part of valence bond theory. Valence bond theory -explains the formation of covalent bonds between atoms of a molecule by the overlapping of valence shells of the atoms . Use of hybridisation : Use of hybridisation Atomic orbitals are used to describe how the electrons are described around the atoms or molecules in their molecular orbitals. The type of hybridisation also tells us about geometry of the resultant molecule. Types of hybridisation : Types of hybridisation There are various types of hybridisation namely: Sp hybridisation Sp2 hybridisation Sp3 hybridisation Sp3d hybridisation Sp3d2 hybridisation We shall be discussing about Sp , Sp2 and Sp3 hybridisation. Sp hybridisation : Sp hybridisation Sp hybridisation is the process where one S orbital and one P orbital of the valence shell of the central atom undergoes hybridisation. Bond angle of sp hybridisation is 180o It forms a linear structure % of s and p character are 50 % and 50 % respectively Example :ethyne,carbondioxide Occurs in ab2 type molecules Illustration of sp hybridisation in ethyne : Illustration of sp hybridisation in ethyne One ethyne molecule has two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms . Carbon is the central atom whose one 2s and one 2p orbital undergoes hybridisation when brought near hydrogen atom . Slide 7: Total of two hybrid orbitals formed for each carbon atom . Here the 2s orbital of each carbon atom forms a sigma bond . The 2pz and 2py orbital of each carbon atom form two pi bonds The remaining two orbitals overlap axially with the 1s1 orbital of two hydrogen atoms thus forming the required structure which is linear . Sp2 hybridisation : Sp2 hybridisation Sp2 hybridisation is the process where one s orbital and two p orbitals of the valence shell of the central atom undergoes hybridisation. Bond angle of sp2 hybrid orbitals is 120o the geometric structure is trigonal % of s and p character are 33.33 % and 66.66 % respectively Example-ethene ,boron-tri-fluoride Occurs in ab3 type molecules Illustration of sp2 hybridisation in ethene : Illustration of sp2 hybridisation in ethene One ethene molecule has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms . Carbon is the central atom whose one 2s and two 2p orbital undergoes hybridisation when brought near hydrogen atom . Slide 10: Total of three hybrid orbitals formed for each carbon atom . Here the 2s orbital of each carbon atom forms a sigma bond . The 2pz orbital of each carbon atom form one pi bond . The remaining four orbitals overlap axially with the 1s1 orbital of four hydrogen atoms thus forming the required structure which is trigonal . Sp3 hybridisation : Sp3 hybridisation Sp3 hybridisation is the process where one s orbital and 3p orbitals of the valence shell of the central atom undergoes hybridisation Bond angle of sp3 hybrid orbitals is 109.28o The geometrical structure is that of a tetrahedron % of s and p character are 25 % and 75% respectively Example- ethane,methane Occurs in ab4 type molecules Illustration of sp3 hybridisation in methane : Illustration of sp3 hybridisation in methane One methane molecule has one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms . Carbon is the central atom whose one 2s and three 2p orbital undergoes hybridisation when brought near hydrogen atom . Slide 13: Total of four hybrid orbitals formed for each carbon atom . Here the four hybrid orbitals overlap axially with 1s1 orbital of four hydrogen atoms , thus forming a tetrahedral structure . Hybrid orbitals and molecular shapes involving s and p-orbitals : Hybrid orbitals and molecular shapes involving s and p-orbitals trivia : trivia You’ve got only 5 seconds to answer each question !!!!!!!! Slide 16: Give an examples of sp3 hybridised molecules Ans.methane or ethane or any alkanes. Give the bond angle of sp hybridised orbitals. Ans. 180 degrees . Name the atom wich undergoes hybridisation in Beryllium trifluoride . Ans. Berilliyum . Give the name of the geometric structure of Mercuric(ii) Chloride ? Ans . Sp. Slide 17: Which of these is the structure of ethene ? Options : Ans. Which of these molecules posess the given geometry ? Options: CH4 , C2H6 , BF3. Ans. BF3. THANK YOU !!!!!!! : THANK YOU !!!!!!! Done by Aravind.p.s Bharat.p.s Pcme+ You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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