Lead exposure powerpoint

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Lead Contamination : 


An Introduction To The Health Effects of Lead : 

An Introduction To The Health Effects of Lead A Small Dose of ™ Lead

Canfield et al…, 2003 : 

“Conclusions: Blood lead concentrations, even those below 10 mgc/dL, are inversely associated with children’s IQ scores at three and five years of age, and associated declines in IQ are greater at these concentrations than at higher concentrations. These findings suggest that more U.S. children may be adversely affected by environmental lead than previously estimated.” Canfield et al. 2003, NEJM, 384 Canfield et al…, 2003

Ancient Awareness : 

6500 BC. - Lead discovered in Turkey, first mine. 500 BC-300 AD.- Roman lead smelting produces dangerous emissions. 100 BC. - Greek physicians give clinical description of lead poisoning. Ancient Awareness

Historical Awareness : 

“If we were to judge of the interest excited by any medical subject by the number of writings to which it has given birth, we could not but regard the poisoning by lead as the most important to be known of all those that have been treated of, up to the present time.” Historical Awareness Orfila, 1817

L. Sullivan, 1991 : 

Public Health Service - L. Sullivan, 1991 “Lead Poisoning remains the most common and societaly devastating environmental disease of young children.” L. Sullivan, 1991

Lead Based Paint : 

Lead Based Paint 1887 - US medical authorities diagnose childhood lead poisoning 1904 - Child lead poisoning linked to lead-based paints 1909 - France, Belgium and Austria ban white-lead interior paint 1914- Pediatric lead-paint poisoning death from eating crib paint is described 1921 - National Lead Company admits lead is a poison 1922 - League of Nations bans white-lead interior paint; US declines to adopt 1943- Report concludes eating lead paint chips causes physical and neurological disorders, behavior, learning and intelligence problems in children 1971- Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act passed

Lead In Gasoline : 

Lead In Gasoline 1854 - Tetraethyl lead discovered by German chemist 1921 - Midgley discovers that tetraethyl lead curbs engine knock 1922 - Public Health Service warns of dangers of lead production, leaded fuel 1923 - Leaded gasoline goes on sale in selected markets 1936 - 90 percent of gasoline sold in US contains Ethyl 1972 - EPA gives notice of proposed phase out of lead in gasoline. 1986 - Primary phase out of leaded gas in US completed 1994 - Study shows that US blood-lead levels declined by 78 percent from 1978 to 1991 2000 - European Union bans leaded gasoline

Health Effects : 

Health Effects Encephalopathy Colic Frank Anemia Hemoglobin Synthesis Peripheral Neuropathies Infertility (MEN) Systolic Blood Pressure (MEN) Nerve Conduction Velocity Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY IQ, Memory, Learning Growth

Sources Of Lead : 

Sources Of Lead Lead Paint Dust, Soil Water Industry Hobbies Traditional Ethnic Remedies

How do we get contaminated ? : 

How do we get contaminated ? Breathing the dust from inside our homes Drinking the water inside our homes Working in our yards and exterior of our homes Hobbies like fishing, hunting, and others Environmental exposures outside our homes

Lead - Absorption : 

Lead - Absorption Orally Consumed Lead Absorbed In Place of Calcium CHILDREN – 30-50% OF LEAD ADULTS – 5-10% OF LEAD Increased During Pregnancy

Half-life Of Lead : 

• 25 DAYS -- BLOOD • 40 DAYS -- SOFT TISSUE • 20 YEARS -- BONE Half-life Of Lead

Children’s Vulnerability : 

Children’s Vulnerability CHILDREN are more vulnerable exposure than ADULTS Consume More Food Inhale More Air Developing Nervous System Increased need for Calcium

IQ and Blood Lead : 

Canfield R, et al. NEJM 2003;348:1517-1526. (slide from BL) IQ and Blood Lead

Who Should Be Tested : 

Who Should Be Tested Children who Had previous elevated lead levels Show symptoms of lead poisoning Live in a building where lead hazards have been found Live or visit a building built prior to 1978 Live in or visit older housing renovated while the child lived or visited there Are siblings, playmates or visitors of children with lead poisoning Live near heavy traffic areas Have frequent hand to mouth activity (thumb sucking) Have household members who participate in lead related hobbies or occupations

Reproductive Effects Of Lead : 

WOMEN lead crosses the placenta low infant birth weight retarded mental development miscarriages premature birth stillbirth MEN decreased sex drive impotence sterility altered sperm-birth defects Reproductive Effects Of Lead

Lead In Ethnic Remedies : 

Lead In Ethnic Remedies

Slide 19: 

In 1999 and 2000, 2.2% of children 1-5 year age had lead levels that were above 10 mcg/dL. Approximately 20 million children under age 5, thus about 440,000 children in the US have blood lead levels above 10 mcg/dL. Recent CDC reports are that almost 900,000 children have blood lead levels high enough to cause adverse effects.

Why Screen For Lead Exposure : 

Find the source Reduce risky behaviors Education about the hazards Education about nutrition Why Screen For Lead Exposure

What can we do? : 

What can we do? “Knowledge is power” Test your home for lead contamination Test your water supply for lead contamination Test the soil outside your home for contamination Test yourself and more especially your children for blood lead levels above the minimum acceptable 10mcg/dl

Simple and affordable avoidance methods : 

Simple and affordable avoidance methods Run tap water for at least 5 minutes daily before drinking or using for cooking ( soldered pipes) Wash hands often Leave shoes and coats at the door Wash toys and other outside use articles to remove dirt and dust Refinish over lead based painted surfaces using “non-sanding” preparation methods

Lead - References : 

Lead - References EPA – Lead site – the best http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/lead/index.html CDC Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/lead.htm

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