zechariah, revelation prophet, part 1

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Zechariah: The Revelation Prophet Part 1:

Friendship Baptist Church Pastor Brian Chilton Zechariah: The Revelation Prophet Part 1

Question of the Week:

Question of the Week Question 36 : How many horns and carpenters did Zechariah see in his first vision? Answer: Four (Zechariah 1:18-21) Question 37: What is the Servant who is sent forth called?

One of Jesus’ Favorite Books:

One of Jesus’ Favorite Books Although Jesus quoted from most of the Tanak (Old Testament), Jesus quoted from three books more than any other. These three books are said to be Jesus’ favorite books in the Tanak . 3 rd Favorite Book: Zechariah is quoted more than any other prophet (Isaiah is a close 2 nd in the prophets category. You could say that Isaiah is Jesus’ fourth favorite book.) 2 nd Favorite Book: Psalms is quoted more than any other writing in the “writing” segment of the Tanak . Favorite Book: Jesus quotes Deuteronomy more than any other book. This book which is literally a “Second Telling of the Law” contains the Great Commandment that Jesus promotes in Deuteronomy 6.

Apocalyptic Book:

Apocalyptic Book Prophets tend to focus on two areas: 1. Social and Ethical Concerns for their time. 2. Future prophecy Liberal and Conservatives tend to argue over which is most prominent (Liberals focus more on social emphasis and conservatives focus more on prophecy) The answer is that both are correct. The prophets focus on both. However, every prophet focuses on either spectrum to varying degrees. Apocalyptic books are prophecies which focus primarily on prophecy and “end time events ( eg . “eschatology”) Common themes: Destruction of evil Triumph of good Peace for believers Punishment for unbelievers Kingdom of God established and rules forever Zechariah, like Revelation and, perhaps, Ezekiel, is an apocalyptic book

Zechariah Introduction Information:

Zechariah Introduction Information Author: Zechariah, the son of Berechiah , the son of Iddo . Some have argued for two authors, dividing the book into two segments, 1-8 and 9-14. Some have claimed that Zechariah wrote the first part and Judas Maccabeus wrote the second. Others have argued that Jeremiah wrote the first part and Zechariah wrote the second. Analysis has shown that there is no need to believe that two authors are necessary. Although the language and style differs in both segments, there is great unity throughout. Therefore, it is unnecessary to believe that anyone other than Zechariah was the source of this document. Date: 520-516 BC during the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. Zechariah was a prophet and priest who served at the same time as Haggai, Ezra, and Nehemiah. Theme: 1) Israel/Judah’s restoration 2) Rebuilding the Temple 3) the Messiah 4) the Kingdom of God 5) the Judgment of God 6) Divine Faithfulness and Human Obedience 7) Cleansing from Sin 8) God’s Leadership

Zechariah Outline from John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-), 1546-47. :

Zechariah Outline from John F. Walvoord , Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-), 1546-47. I. The Eight Symbolic Visions (chaps. 1-6) A. The introduction to the visions (1:1-6) 1. Preface to the call to repentance (1:1) 2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6) B. The communication of the visions (1:7-6:8) 1. The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17) 2. The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21) 3. The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2) 4. The vision of the cleansing and crowning of Joshua (chap. 3) 5. The vision of the gold lampstand and the two olive trees (chap. 4) 6. The vision of the flying scroll (5:1-4) 7. The vision of the woman in the ephah (5:5-11) 8. The vision of the four chariots (6:1-8) C. The symbolic act concluding the vision (6:9-15) 1. The symbolic crowning (6:9-11) 2. The prophetic message (6:12-13) 3. The visible memorial (6:14) 4. The universal significance (6:15) II. The Four Explanatory Messages (chaps. 7-8) A. The messages required by the question about fasting (7:1-3) B. The messages declared as the answer from the Lord (7:4-8:23) 1. A message of rebuke (7:4-7) 2. A message of repentance (7:8-14) 3. A message of restoration (8:1-17) 4. A message of rejoicing (8:18-23) III. Two Revelatory Oracles (chaps. 9-14) A. The anointed King rejected (chaps. 9-11) 1. The intervening judgments on nations surrounding Israel (9:1-8) 2. The blessings of the Messiah (9:9-10:12) 3. The rejection of the Good Shepherd and its consequences for Israel (chap. 11) B. The rejected King enthroned (chaps. 12-14) 1. The redemption of Israel (chaps. 12-13) 2. The return of the King (chap. 14)

Influence on New Testament:

Influence on New Testament “ One of the great ironies concerning the book of Zechariah is its relative obscurity to the modern church contrasted with its profound significance to the early church.” (George L. Klein, New American Commentary, 61). New Testament Quotations from Zechariah (from Klein) Zech 9:9 and Matthew 21:5; John 12:15 Zech 1:16 and Rev. 11:1-2 Zech 11:13 and Matt. 27:9 Zech 1 and 6 and Rev. 6 & 19 Zech 12:3 and Luke 21:24 Zech 1:7-14 and Rev. 6:1-8 Zech 12:10 and John 19:37; Rev. 1:7 Zech 2:10-17 and Rev. 7:3-8:1 Zech 13:7 and Mark 14:27 Zech 3 and Rev. 3:4-5 and etc Zech 14:5 and 1 Thess 3:13 Zech 4 and Rev. 11 Zech 14:8 and John 7:38 Zech 6 and Rev. 2:10 and etc Zech 14:21 and John 2:16 Zech 12:10-12 and Rev. 1:7 Zech 11:11; 13:7 and Luke 12:32 Zech 14:4 and Rev. 11:13, 15 Zech 14:4 and Matt. 17:20 Zech 14:6-22 and Rev. 21 Zech 11:6 and Mark 9:31 Zech 14:5 and Matt 25:31

Tonight’s Outline:

Tonight’s Outline I. The Eight Symbolic Visions (chaps. 1-6) A. The introduction to the visions (1:1-6) 1. Preface to the call to repentance (1:1) 2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6) B. The communication of the visions (1:7-6:8) 1. The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17) 2. The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21) 3. The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2)

A. The introduction to the visions (1:1-6) 1. Preface to the call to repentance (1:1):

A. The introduction to the visions (1:1-6) 1. Preface to the call to repentance (1:1 ) 1 In the eighth month of the second year of Darius, the word of the LORD came to Zechariah the son of Berechiah , the son of Iddo the prophet, saying,

Preface to the call of repentance (1:1):

Preface to the call of repentance (1:1) Zechariah’s first message came to him “in the eighth month of the second year of Darius.” This is about October-November of 520 BC on our calendar. The name Zechariah (Hebrew “ Zekaryah ”) means “the LORD (“Yahweh”) remembers.” This name emphasizes God’s faithfulness to His covenant and His promises. Darius the King was a well-known king known for the Behistun Inscription which shows Persian accomplishments.

2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6):

2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6 ) 2 "The LORD has been very angry with your fathers. 3 "Therefore say to them, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "Return to Me," says the LORD of hosts, "and I will return to you," says the LORD of hosts. 4 "Do not be like your fathers, to whom the former prophets preached, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "Turn now from your evil ways and your evil deeds."' But they did not hear nor heed Me," says the LORD. 5 "Your fathers, where are they? And the prophets, do they live forever? 6 Yet surely My words and My statutes, Which I commanded My servants the prophets, Did they not overtake your fathers? "So they returned and said: 'Just as the LORD of hosts determined to do to us, According to our ways and according to our deeds, So He has dealt with us .'"'"

2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6):

2. Particulars of the call to repentance (1:2-6) (1:2-3) Zechariah received the word from God. He reminded everyone of the past judgments that had happened due to a person’s and/or nation’s rebellion against God. Zechariah also tells the people that if they turned to God, God would redirect their course to a course of blessing. This is the same promise that was originally given in the covenant as stated in Deuteronomy. (1:4-6) The people’s forefathers had ample warning. They had the covenant given in the Law, plus they had the prophets (Isaiah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel) who had all warned of the Babylonian Exile. They refused to listen. The people should have learned from the past. “If we do not learn from the past, we are condemned to repeat it.”

B. The communication of the visions (1:7-6:8) 1. The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17):

B. The communication of the visions (1:7-6:8) 1. The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17 ) 7 On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Shebat , in the second year of Darius, the word of the LORD came to Zechariah the son of Berechiah , the son of Iddo the prophet: 8 I saw by night, and behold, a man riding on a red horse, and it stood among the myrtle trees in the hollow; and behind him were horses: red, sorrel, and white. 9 Then I said, "My lord, what are these?" So the angel who talked with me said to me, "I will show you what they are." 10 And the man who stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, "These are the ones whom the LORD has sent to walk to and fro throughout the earth." 11 So they answered the Angel of the LORD, who stood among the myrtle trees, and said, "We have walked to and fro throughout the earth, and behold, all the earth is resting quietly." 12 Then the Angel of the LORD answered and said, "O LORD of hosts, how long will You not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah, against which You were angry these seventy years?" 13 And the LORD answered the angel who talked to me, with good and comforting words. 14 So the angel who spoke with me said to me, "Proclaim, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "I am zealous for Jerusalem And for Zion with great zeal. 15 I am exceedingly angry with the nations at ease; For I was a little angry, And they helped-but with evil intent." 16 'Therefore thus says the LORD: "I am returning to Jerusalem with mercy; My house shall be built in it," says the LORD of hosts, "And a surveyor's line shall be stretched out over Jerusalem."' 17 "Again proclaim, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts: "My cities shall again spread out through prosperity; The LORD will again comfort Zion, And will again choose Jerusalem ."'"

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17):

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17) (1:7) God would give Zechariah 8 visions on the evening of February 15 th , 519 BC about 3 months after the call to repentance. “ Shebat ” is the Babylonian term for the month “ Shivat ” which goes from mid-January to mid-February. (1:8) “Myrtle” is an evergreen tree that grew around Jerusalem. This first vision is called “The Vision of the Red Horse Rider”. This begins the first of 8 visions Zechariah has on this night. There is great symbolism in this verse. The Angel of the LORD sits upon the red horse, so this horseman is different than the red horseman of Revelation. Behind the angel, sits three horsemen, one red, one brown, and one white. Red represents “war” and “death.” Myrtle trees were associated with the Feast of Tabernacles, Myrtles were the wood used for the booths. This represents a Messianic kingdom blessing. It appears that the pre-incarnate Christ was sitting upon the red horse with the other horsemen representing angels following the Angel of the Lord. Therefore, the image is that of Christ riding out among the people, protecting the covenant, and reporting back to the Father. The Myrtle trees represent God’s covenant blessings upon a faithful people showing that the people will be blessed if they remain faithful to God.

The Angel of the LORD, Who is This?:

The Angel of the LORD, Who is This? As mentioned in the last slide, I hold to the fact that the Angel of the LORD ( hwhy kalm ) is the pre-incarnate Christ. Some hold that this Angel of the LORD is simply an angel and not the Christ. However, there is reason to hold that the Angel of the LORD is indeed Christ before the incarnation. The Angel of the LORD is held as being God in the flesh by Jacob when Jacob wrestled this Angel. Others have noted that when the Angel visited them, it was God who visited them. The fact that this Angel speaks directly to God the Father shows unity. Therefore, this Angel is Christ Himself before Christ was born.

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17):

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17) (1:9-11 ) It appears that Zechariah does not get this information directly from the Angel of the Lord. There is an angel who acts as an interpreter of this vision. The angel asks the Angel what this means. The Angel respond that He and the angels are patrolling the earth. At the present time, everything was quiet and peaceful. (1:12 ) Then, the Angel (Christ) asks God the Father how long He will have anger against Jerusalem. We find Christ interceding even here. Zechariah is understanding this portion from the angel who reports what the Angel asks the Father. (1:13-15 ) We find the jealous love that God has for His people here in this text. Notice that the angel that is speaking to Zechariah is the angel asking God questions not the Angel of the LORD. The anger of God was kindled against the enemies of Israel due to their evil instead of Israel itself.

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17):

First Vision: The vision of the red-horse rider among the myrtles (1:7-17) (1:16-17) Ultimately, these verses will find their fulfillment in the Millennial Reign of Christ. God promises Israel six blessings in this verse . 1) The presence of God would return to Jerusalem. This was ultimately fulfilled in the first Advent of Jesus Christ. God walked among the citizens of Jerusalem. 2) The Temple would be rebuilt. 3) The city would be rebuilt to perfect measure. The city was indeed rebuilt. However, the “surveyor’s line” described a perfect structure. This will occur in the New Jerusalem. 4) Israel would be blessed beyond their wildest dreams. This will happen in the Millennial Reign. 5) The inhabitants of Jerusalem would be comforted by God’s promises. This has multiple applications. 6) The choosing of Jerusalem has to do with the sovereign love of God. This could refer to the establishment of a New Covenant in Jerusalem. Obviously, this would point to the sacrifice of Jesus Christ

2. Second Vision: The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21):

2. Second Vision: The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21 ) 18 Then I raised my eyes and looked, and there were four horns. 19 And I said to the angel who talked with me, "What are these?" So he answered me, "These are the horns that have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem." 20 Then the LORD showed me four craftsmen. 21 And I said, "What are these coming to do?" So he said, "These are the horns that scattered Judah, so that no one could lift up his head; but the craftsmen are coming to terrify them, to cast out the horns of the nations that lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it."

The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21):

The vision of the four horns and the four craftsmen (1:18-21) (1:18-19) Horns are a symbol of strength. These horns represent the four nations that dispersed Israel and Judah. These nations are: Persia, Babylon, Assyria, and Egypt. (1:20) The four craftsmen are then introduced. The four craftsmen are actually blacksmiths which are metal workers. These were the instruments used to judge the nations. (1:21) The nations, except for Egypt, had intertwined with Persia. In the end, Persia and all the lands that God used to disperse Israel for judgment would be conquered. Eventually, Macedonia (Greece) led by Alexander the Great would indeed conquer Persia.

3. Third Vision: The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2):

3. Third Vision: The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2) 1 Then I raised my eyes and looked, and behold, a man with a measuring line in his hand. 2 So I said, "Where are you going?" And he said to me, "To measure Jerusalem, to see what is its width and what is its length." 3 And there was the angel who talked with me, going out; and another angel was coming out to meet him, 4 who said to him, "Run, speak to this young man, saying: 'Jerusalem shall be inhabited as towns without walls, because of the multitude of men and livestock in it. 5 'For I,' says the LORD, 'will be a wall of fire all around her, and I will be the glory in her midst.'" 6 "Up, up! Flee from the land of the north," says the LORD; "for I have spread you abroad like the four winds of heaven," says the LORD. 7 "Up, Zion! Escape, you who dwell with the daughter of Babylon." 8 For thus says the LORD of hosts: "He sent Me after glory, to the nations which plunder you; for he who touches you touches the apple of His eye. 9 "For surely I will shake My hand against them, and they shall become spoil for their servants. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent Me. 10 "Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion! For behold, I am coming and I will dwell in your midst," says the LORD. 11 "Many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and they shall become My people. And I will dwell in your midst. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent Me to you. 12 "And the LORD will take possession of Judah as His inheritance in the Holy Land, and will again choose Jerusalem. 13 "Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD, for He is aroused from His holy habitation !"

The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2):

The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2) (2:1) Zechariah moves to his second vision. Here, the players are: Zechariah, a surveyor, the interpreting angel, and another unknown angel. The surveyor is identified as the man. But who is the man? Jewish commentator Rashi claims the man is the interpreting angel. St. Jerome contends that the man is the Angel of the LORD. Christian commentator Mitchell claims that the man represents those who want to rebuild the Temple. In my opinion, I think the surveyor is a separate unnamed angelic entity. This is the same opinion of Roy Zuck and John Walvoord in the Bible Knowledge Commentary . (2:2-4a) The young man is Zechariah. Zechariah wants to know what is going on. The surveyor tells the other angel that the city is being prepared. (2:4b) This shows the vision will be fulfilled in the future. A city can only exist without walls when there is no enemy to invade. This refers to a time when all the enemies of Israel has been eliminated. This refers to the Heavenly Israel in which all evil has been eliminated. (2:5) This clearly shows the heaven that awaits us. In that time, God will be the light. His glory will fill the whole place and there will be no need for walls and protection in that day. No security systems and no police force will be necessary. It will be a land of peace. (2:6-7) The land of the north is identified as Babylon. The daughter of Babylon is the people of the LORD. God delivered the people from Babylon and brought judgment against Babylon. Portions of these verses are still uncertain.

The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2):

The vision of the surveyor with the measuring line (chap. 2) (2:8) It is really uncertain who is doing the talking in verse 8. Many think it is Zechariah, however, it appears that the Angel of the Lord because the verse shows God speaking yet saying that He was sent by God. Therefore, it further appears that the Angel of the Lord is indeed the pre-incarnate Christ. Christ, God incarnate, would be God and come to bring deliverance and judgment. The apple of His eye shows the endearment of the people to God. (2:9) The fulfillment of the judgment of the foreign nations and the coming of Christ would authenticate Zechariah as a prophet from God. (2:10) This verse further shows that God was coming in physical form to live amongst the people. Now, some may view this as the Shekinah Glory of God re-entering the Temple, but the text seems to mean more than that. When Jesus came, He fulfilled this prophecy as He was God incarnate. (2:11-12) WOW!!! God shows forth that Gentiles will come into the fold. This shows that this Israel is the heavenly Israel. The complete body of Christ. Again, this shows that the Angel of the Lord is indeed Christ who would come to redeem humanity. (2:13) God was about to intervene in human affairs. The people should be silent in anticipation of the LORD’s movement.

Conclusion:

Conclusion We see the thrilling beginning of Zechariah. You can clearly see why Zechariah was an important prophet for the New Testament writers. After reading the first two chapters, one is already in wonder why there were any doubters when Jesus Christ came to fulfill His Father’s plan.

Next Week, Zechariah: The Revelation Prophet, Part 2:

Next Week, Zechariah: The Revelation Prophet, Part 2 The Fourth Vision: The Vision of the High Priest The Fifth Vision: The Vision of the Lampstand and Olive Trees

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