haggai_the temple prophet

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A Bible study in the book of Haggai.

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Brian chilton ministries and friendship baptist church present…:

HAGGAI: THE TEMPLE PROPHET Brian chilton ministries and friendship baptist church present…

Haggai: The Temple Prophet:

Rev. Brian Chilton Haggai: The Temple Prophet

Question of the Week:

Question 27: In the seventh month, the word of the Lord came to Haggai. What day was it of the seventh month that the word of the Lord came to Haggai? Answer: “The 21 st day of the Seventh Month.” This would have been October 17 th of 520 BC. (Haggai 2:1, KJV). Question 28: What does Malachi say a person does when a person holds back their tithes and offerings? Question of the Week

Haggai: introduction:

Author: Haggai, the prophet Date: The last message (of four messages) was delivered on December 18 th , 520 BC. The book would have been compiled sometime shortly thereafter. This would make Haggai a contemporary of many ancient philosophers such as Socrates and Plato, Confucius in China, and Siddhartha Gautauma (“The Buddha”) in India. Theme: The rebuilding of the Temple and the people’s focus on the house of the LORD. History: The Babylonians were overtaken by the Persians. Cyrus, the emperor of Persia, fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah and Isaiah in allowing the Jews to return home and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem. However, there was a problem; the inhabitants of the area (the Samaritans) did not want the Temple rebuilt and caused problems in the rebuilding process. Those who returned were met with a dichotomy: help their family the Jews rebuild, or help their family, the Samaritans, in resisting the project. Haggai: introduction

Haggai’s Outline:

I. The First Message: A Judgmental Call to Rebuild the Temple (chap. 1) A . The superscription (1:1) B . The accusation of procrastination (1:2-6) C . The exhortation to rebuild the temple (1:7-8 ) D . The explanation of the people’s impoverishment (1:9-11) E . The response of leaders and people to the prophetic message (1:12-15) II. The Second Message: A Prophetic Promise of the Future Glory of the Temple (2:1-9) A . The superscription (2:1-2) B . The promise of the Lord’s enabling presence as an encouragement for rebuilding the temple (2:3-5) C . The proclamation of the future glory of the temple (2:6-9) III. The Third Message: A Priestly Decision to Illustrate the Present Blessings of Obedience ( 2:10- 19 ) A . The superscription (2:10) B . A ritual comparison showing the corrupting effect of sin (2:11-14) C . A promise of present blessing in contrast with previous chastening (2:15-19) IV. The Fourth Message: A Messianic Prophecy concerning Zerubbabel (2:20-23) A . The superscription (2:20-21a) B . A proclamation of the future overthrow of the Gentile kingdoms (2:21b-22) C . A proclamation of the restoration of the Davidic kingdom (2:23) John F. Walvoord , Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary, vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary : An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1983-), 1538. Haggai’s Outline

The First Message: A Judgmental Call to Rebuild the Temple (chap. 1) :

1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech , the high priest, saying, 2 Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, This people say, The time is not come, the time that the LORD'S house should be built. 3 Then came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying, 4 Is it time for you, O ye, to dwell in your cieled houses, and this house lie waste? 5 Now therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; Consider your ways. 6 Ye have sown much, and bring in little; ye eat, but ye have not enough; ye drink, but ye are not filled with drink; ye clothe you, but there is none warm; and he that earneth wages earneth wages to put it into a bag with holes. 7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Consider your ways. 8 Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house; and I will take pleasure in it, and I will be glorified, saith the LORD. 9 Ye looked for much, and, lo, it came to little; and when ye brought it home, I did blow upon it. Why? saith the LORD of hosts. Because of mine house that is waste, and ye run every man unto his own house. The First Message: A Judgmental Call to Rebuild the Temple (chap. 1) 1 In the second year of Darius the king, on the first day of the sixth month, the word of the LORD came by the prophet Haggai to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak , the high priest, saying, 2 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'This people says, "The time has not come, even the time for the house of the LORD to be rebuilt."'" 3 Then the word of the LORD came by Haggai the prophet, saying, 4 "Is it time for you yourselves to dwell in your paneled houses while this house lies desolate?" 5 Now therefore, thus says the LORD of hosts, "Consider your ways! 6 "You have sown much, but harvest little; you eat, but there is not enough to be satisfied; you drink, but there is not enough to become drunk; you put on clothing, but no one is warm enough; and he who earns, earns wages to put into a purse with holes." 7 Thus says the LORD of hosts, "Consider your ways! 8 "Go up to the mountains, bring wood and rebuild the temple, that I may be pleased with it and be glorified," says the LORD. 9 "You look for much, but behold, it comes to little; when you bring it home, I blow it away. Why?" declares the LORD of hosts, "Because of My house which lies desolate, while each of you runs to his own house.

Chapter one (Cont’d):

10 Therefore the heaven over you is stayed from dew, and the earth is stayed from her fruit. 11 And I called for a drought upon the land, and upon the mountains, and upon the corn, and upon the new wine, and upon the oil, and upon that which the ground bringeth forth, and upon men, and upon cattle, and upon all the labour of the hands. 12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , and Joshua the son of Josedech , the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him, and the people did fear before the LORD. 13 Then spake Haggai the LORD'S messenger in the LORD'S message unto the people, saying, I am with you, saith the LORD. 14 And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Josedech , the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts, their God, 15 In the four and twentieth day of the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. (KJV) Chapter one (Cont’d) 10 "Therefore, because of you the sky has withheld its dew and the earth has withheld its produce. 11 "I called for a drought on the land, on the mountains, on the grain, on the new wine, on the oil, on what the ground produces, on men, on cattle, and on all the labor of your hands." 12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , and Joshua the son of Jehozadak , the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him. And the people showed reverence for the LORD. 13 Then Haggai, the messenger of the LORD, spoke by the commission of the LORD to the people saying, "'I am with you,' declares the LORD." 14 So the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak , the high priest, and the spirit of all the remnant of the people; and they came and worked on the house of the LORD of hosts, their God, 15 on the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month in the second year of Darius the king. (NAS95)

A. The superscription (1:1) :

A “superscription” is found at the beginning of all four messages of Haggai. The superscription does the following: -Identifies the prophet speaking. -Identifies the date of the prophecy given. -And, it identifies the occasion of the writing. (NLT Study Bible). This superscription identifies the prophet Haggai and gives details concerning his lineage. The Hebrew word “ nabi ” (prophet) identifies Haggai as the messenger of the LORD. The date is August 29, 520. Haggai’s messages are the most precisely dated in all the Bible. Darius I of Persia was also known as “ Hystaspes ”. A. The superscription (1:1)

B. The accusation of procrastination (1:2-6) :

In this section, Haggai speaks on the necessity of rebuilding God’s Temple and exposes the procrastination of the people. They were rebuilding, too. However, God’s house was being neglected. One of the favorite names of God that Haggai and Zechariah uses is “YHWH Tsaba ” or “LORD of hosts” in the KJV and NASB. In other translations, it may be “LORD Almighty” (NIV) or “LORD of Heaven’s Armies” in the NLT. The last translation is dead on target as to what the term means because it speaks of God being the ruler of the armies of heaven. (3-4) Some would ask, “Why was it not okay for homes to built before the Temple?” A closer look will answer the question. The homes were overly luxurious while the Temple still remained in ruins. (5-6) Haggai tells the people to give careful thought to what they are doing. He gives five ways in showing their efforts are in vain 1) Picture of a lean harvest, 2) Person suffering from metabolism problems, 3) Wine was too watery to give any satisfaction, 4) Clothes too thin to provide warmth, and 5) Incomes that do not meet their expenses. B. The accusation of procrastination (1:2-6)

C. The exhortation to rebuild the temple (1:7-8) :

In these two verses, God tells the people to get off their “backsides”, stop procrastinating, and start building His Temple. God would be honored by the Temple they build. They just had to get motivated enough to get the supplies and build it. C. The exhortation to rebuild the temple (1:7-8)

D. The explanation of the people’s impoverishment (1:9-11) :

God explains the judgments announced in verses 5-6. Two things happened to their harvest: 1) their harvest was small and 2) the things they did disappeared as quickly as they did them. This all showed that God was at work bringing judgment. He was removing their blessings from them. (God may remove blessings from us if we are not faithful to His house, therefore not being faithful unto Him.) (10-11) It is because of the rebellion of the people that God was going to withhold the rain and the harvest until they placed their focus back upon God. Why would a powerful, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Omniscient, Eternal Creator be concerned about a temporal house? There are reasons given in the latter part of the book. One of the biggest answers would be that it was not so much the house as much as it was about the people’s faithfulness to God. Has our culture neglected to give God the first place that He deserves??? D. The explanation of the people’s impoverishment (1:9-11)

E. The response of leaders and people to the prophetic message (1:12-15) :

Some pastors and evangelists have stated that the invitation of a service is the “Main Event.” It is then that people make eternal decisions and no one should ever neglect to give the invitation the major importance necessary. Likewise, these last few verses give the invitational response of the people. (12) WOW!!! Alas, a positive reaction!!! Zerubabbel , Jeshua (same name of Jesus) the high priest, and all of the people responded positively to the altar call. The people feared the LORD and started to build the Temple. (13-15) On September 21, 520BC, the LORD worked through the enthusiasm of the leaders and it seemed like a great revival was breaking out. But, did it last? Why three more messages? E. The response of leaders and people to the prophetic message (1:12-15)

The Second Message: A Prophetic Promise of the Future Glory of the Temple (2:1-9) :

1 In the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month, came the word of the LORD by the prophet Haggai, saying, 2 Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech , the high priest, and to the residue of the people, saying, 3 Who is left among you that saw this house in her first glory? and how do ye see it now? is it not in your eyes in comparison of it as nothing? 4 Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel , saith the LORD; and be strong, O Joshua, son of Josedech , the high priest; and be strong, all ye people of the land, saith the LORD, and work: for I am with you, saith the LORD of hosts: 5 According to the word that I covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, so my spirit remaineth among you: fear ye not. 6 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land; 7 And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts. 8 The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, saith the LORD of hosts. 9 The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the former, saith the LORD of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the LORD of hosts. (KJV) The Second Message: A Prophetic Promise of the Future Glory of the Temple (2:1-9) 1 On the twenty-first of the seventh month, the word of the LORD came by Haggai the prophet saying, 2 "Speak now to Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel , governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Jehozadak , the high priest, and to the remnant of the people saying, 3 'Who is left among you who saw this temple in its former glory? And how do you see it now? Does it not seem to you like nothing in comparison? 4 'But now take courage, Zerubbabel ,' declares the LORD, 'take courage also, Joshua son of Jehozadak , the high priest, and all you people of the land take courage,' declares the LORD, 'and work; for I am with you,' declares the LORD of hosts. 5 'As for the promise which I made you when you came out of Egypt, My Spirit is abiding in your midst; do not fear!' 6 "For thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Once more in a little while, I am going to shake the heavens and the earth, the sea also and the dry land. 7 'I will shake all the nations; and they will come with the wealth of all nations, and I will fill this house with glory,' says the LORD of hosts. 8 'The silver is Mine and the gold is Mine,' declares the LORD of hosts. 9 'The latter glory of this house will be greater than the former,' says the LORD of hosts, 'and in this place I will give peace,' declares the LORD of hosts." (NAS95)

A. The superscription (2:1-2) :

Verses 1 and 2 serve as the superscription to the second message. The second message of Haggai was delivered on October 17, 520 BC. The message was delivered unto Zerubbabel the governor of Judah, Jeshua the high priest, and all the people. Actually, the revival DID continue and everyone became excited about rebuilding the Temple of God. The second message would serve as a reminder of the promises of God and how God would be faithful to those promises. A. The superscription (2:1-2)

B. The promise of the Lord’s enabling presence as an encouragement for rebuilding the temple (2:3-5) :

Haggai asks three rhetorical questions: 1: Did anyone remember the Temple as it used to be? Some did. Those 70 years and older would have remembered Solomon’s Temple in 586 BC. Haggai was speaking 66 years later. The answer was: “Yes.” 2: Did the House look that good now? The answer was: “No.” Could the poor exiles match the wealth of Solomon? No, but they needed to give God the very best they had. When we preach messages and sing songs, do we sing as well as we could? Do we give our all to God or half-hearted attempts? 3: Did the Temple seem like anything at all? Obviously, God was happy with the building, but not with the efforts. Do we give God our second best while giving the world our first? (4-5) Haggai encourages the people to “be strong” and give it their all. God’s Spirit would be with them as He was with them in the Exodus. B. The promise of the Lord’s enabling presence as an encouragement for rebuilding the temple (2:3-5)

C. The proclamation of the future glory of the temple (2:6-9) :

There were reasons for this Temple’s construction. The author of Hebrews quoted Haggai 2:6. The author of Hebrews (Paul, Apollos , or Barnabas) said that the shaking first happened on Mt. Sinai and the second shaking would happen by the judgment of God. See Hebrews 12:26. All nations would eventually bring their treasures to the Temple and God would fill this place with His glory. Seeing as how Jerusalem is a major city to three major world religions and a place of pilgrimage for all three (Wailing Wall for Jews, Dome of the Rock for Muslims, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians). Perhaps the glory refers to the outpouring of His Spirit at Pentecost. Even though the major religions are brought in, this verse is Messianic as the Messiah would bring all nations united unto God. All nations includes Gentile nations. Everything belongs to God. God would give them the resources they needed to build the Temple. Even though Solomon had greater wealth than these faithful but poor workers, this Temple would have greater glory than Solomon’s, and do it did. This Temple would bring peace. It seems as if the opposite has happened. However, the Prince of Peace, Jesus Christ, would come to the Temple and bring forth His message of peace. In the end, Christ will bring peace to all the world during His Millennial Reign and ultimately in eternity. C. The proclamation of the future glory of the temple (2:6-9)

The Third Message: A Priestly Decision to Illustrate the Present Blessings of Obedience (2:10-19) :

10 In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying, 11 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ask now the priests concerning the law, saying, 12 If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any meat, shall it be holy? And the priests answered and said, No. 13 Then said Haggai, If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean? And the priests answered and said, It shall be unclean. 14 Then answered Haggai, and said, So is this people, and so is this nation before me, saith the LORD; and so is every work of their hands; and that which they offer there is unclean. 15 And now, I pray you, consider from this day and upward, from before a stone was laid upon a stone in the temple of the LORD: 16 Since those days were, when one came to an heap of twenty measures, there were but ten: when one came to the pressfat for to draw out fifty vessels out of the press, there were but twenty. 17 I smote you with blasting and with mildew and with hail in all the labours of your hands; yet ye turned not to me, saith the LORD. 18 Consider now from this day and upward, from the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, even from the day that the foundation of the LORD'S temple was laid, consider it. 19 Is the seed yet in the barn? yea, as yet the vine, and the fig tree, and the pomegranate, and the olive tree, hath not brought forth: from this day will I bless you . ( KJV) The Third Message: A Priestly Decision to Illustrate the Present Blessings of Obedience ( 2:10-19 ) 10 On the twenty-fourth of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of the LORD came to Haggai the prophet, saying, 11 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, 'Ask now the priests for a ruling: 12 'If a man carries holy meat in the fold of his garment, and touches bread with this fold, or cooked food, wine, oil, or any other food, will it become holy?'" And the priests answered, "No." 13 Then Haggai said, "If one who is unclean from a corpse touches any of these, will the latter become unclean?" And the priests answered, "It will become unclean." 14 Then Haggai said, "'So is this people. And so is this nation before Me,' declares the LORD, 'and so is every work of their hands; and what they offer there is unclean. 15 'But now, do consider from this day onward: before one stone was placed on another in the temple of the LORD, 16 from that time when one came to a grain heap of twenty measures, there would be only ten; and when one came to the wine vat to draw fifty measures, there would be only twenty. 17 'I smote you and every work of your hands with blasting wind, mildew and hail; yet you did not come back to Me,' declares the LORD. 18 'Do consider from this day onward, from the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month; from the day when the temple of the LORD was founded, consider: 19 'Is the seed still in the barn? Even including the vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate and the olive tree, it has not borne fruit. Yet from this day on I will bless you.'“ (NAS95)

A. The superscription (2:10) :

Verse 10 serves as the superscription for the third message. This message was delivered on December 18 th , 520 BC. The fourth would be received and delivered later on the same day (vs. 20). The third message is concentrated on holiness and ritual purity. A. The superscription (2:10)

B. A ritual comparison showing the corrupting effect of sin (2:11-14) :

(11-12) The priests were asked the question because they were responsible for interpreting the law and teaching the law of God. Before we look at these verses, let us consider Exodus 29:37. “Purify the altar, and consecrate it every day for seven days. After that, the altar will be absolutely holy, and whatever touches it will become holy” (Exodus 29:37, NLT). The question was this, was everything holy that touched the altar. Say a priest has a glass of wine in his right hand and his robe touches the altar. Does the robe become holy making the priest holy and the glass holy and the wine inside the glass holy? Is this holiness contagious in a linear fashion? The answer was “No” and rightly so. (13-14) The same question was asked of ritual impurity or a lack of holiness. If a person touches a dead thing and then touches a food without washing his hands, will the food be defiled? The answer is “Yes.” Therefore, Haggai shows that sin can easily corrupt whereas holiness is much harder to maintain. B. A ritual comparison showing the corrupting effect of sin (2:11-14) “All those who touch a dead human body will be ceremonially unclean for seven days. 12 They must purify themselves on the third and seventh days with the water of purification; then they will be purified. But if they do not do this on the third and seventh days, they will continue to be unclean even after the seventh day. 13 All those who touch a dead body and do not purify themselves in the proper way defile the LORD’s Tabernacle, and they will be cut off from the community of Israel. Since the water of purification was not sprinkled on them, their defilement continues” (Numbers 19:11-13, NLT)

C. A promise of present blessing in contrast with previous chastening (2:15-19) :

This passage of Scripture shows the turning point. Here, we get a rare glimpse of what happens when people obeys the LORD. Throughout much of the Minor Prophets, we have seen the rebellion of humanity and the refusal to turn to God because of pride. When people do turn to God and place Him first, God will bless them greatly. Before, the blessings were touch and go. Now, the people put God first and were blessed greatly and would continue to be blessed. It appears that the foundation was already laid in 537 BC as found in Ezra 3:6. But, there must have been a pause in construction. Haggai was like their cheerleader encouraging them to continue in God’s blessings by continuing to rebuild the Temple. C. A promise of present blessing in contrast with previous chastening (2:15-19)

The Fourth Message: A Messianic Prophecy concerning Zerubbabel (2:20-23) :

20 And again the word of the LORD came unto Haggai in the four and twentieth day of the month, saying, 21 Speak to Zerubbabel , governor of Judah, saying, I will shake the heavens and the earth; 22 And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen; and I will overthrow the chariots, and those that ride in them; and the horses and their riders shall come down, every one by the sword of his brother. 23 In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, will I take thee, O Zerubbabel , my servant, the son of Shealtiel , saith the LORD, and will make thee as a signet: for I have chosen thee, saith the LORD of hosts. (KJV) The Fourth Message: A Messianic Prophecy concerning Zerubbabel (2:20-23) 20 Then the word of the LORD came a second time to Haggai on the twenty-fourth day of the month, saying, 21 "Speak to Zerubbabel governor of Judah, saying, 'I am going to shake the heavens and the earth. 22 'I will overthrow the thrones of kingdoms and destroy the power of the kingdoms of the nations; and I will overthrow the chariots and their riders, and the horses and their riders will go down, everyone by the sword of another.' 23 'On that day,' declares the LORD of hosts, 'I will take you, Zerubbabel , son of Shealtiel , My servant,' declares the LORD, 'and I will make you like a signet ring, for I have chosen you,'" declares the LORD of hosts. (NAS95)

A. The superscription (2:20-21a) :

The final message is given beginning at verse 20. Here we find the superscription for the final message. This message was given on December 18 th , 520 BC as was the third message. Perhaps, this final message was the most important message that Haggai was to bring because He speaks of the Messianic age. A. The superscription (2:20-21a)

B. A proclamation of the future overthrow of the Gentile kingdoms (2:21b-22) :

Zerubbabel was a descendent of David through Jehoiachin . God reversed the curse on the descendants of Jehoiachin through Zerubbabel . However, Zerubabbel would be executed by King Darius because Zerubabbel served as a threat to his kingdom. Nonetheless, God would bring all nations under His dominion. All nations would bow to Him. Through John’s Revelation, we know that Christ will usher in a new kingdom that will rule over all nations. Daniel shows the “Son of Man” being the “Ancient of Days” (God) human figure. Zerubabbel was an ancestor to Christ and he would be honored through Jesus the Messiah. B. A proclamation of the future overthrow of the Gentile kingdoms (2:21b-22)

C. A proclamation of the restoration of the Davidic kingdom (2:23) :

(23) Again , Zerubabbel was of the lineage of Jesus. Therefore, Zerubabbel’s lineage would be the “signet ring” of God’s rule. One of Zerubabbel’s descendants would rule and reign forever. Zerubabbel may have had notoriety, but he would be better known as being an ancestor of the King of all kings and the Lord of all lords…Jesus the Messiah. The LORD Almighty declared this and so it would be. When God promises to bless you, sometimes the blessings are immediate and other times the blessings are delayed. With Zerubabbel , he would not see the full nature of God’s blessings upon him on earth, but he had an eternal blessing arriving in his descendant Jesus ( Yeshua ) the Christ (Messiah). C. A proclamation of the restoration of the Davidic kingdom (2:23)

Next prophet::

MALACHI: THE MESSIAH OF PEACE PROPHET (4 CHAPTERS) THEN: HOSEA: THE MARRIED PROPHET (14 CHAPTERS) AND ZECHARIAH: THE REVELATION PROPHET (14 CHAPTERS) Next prophet:

BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE:

New Living Translation Study Bible , Tyndale House Publishers: Carol Stream, IL. 2007. Barker, Kenneth L.; John R. Kohlenberger III, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Old Testament Abrided Edition , Zondervan Publishers: Grand Rapids, MI. 1994. Williams , Peter. Opening Up Haggai. Leominster: Day One Publications, 2008. Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 4:01 PM May 25, 2011 . Walvoord , John F., Roy B. Zuck and Dallas Theological Seminary. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures. Wheaton, IL: Victor Books , 1983 Exported from Logos Bible Software 4, 4:02 PM May 25, 2011. Taylor, Richard A.; E. Ray Clendenen , The New American Commentary, Volume 21 A: Haggai, Malachi , Broadman and Holman Publishers: Nashville, TN. 2004. BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE

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