Giving advice: Giving advice Giving warnings expressing obligation Part 1: the present: Part 1: the present Advice: s hould or shouldn’t o ught to *ought to (not common in negative form) Warning: Had better (not) … OR … ( ‘d better) Obligation: must h ave to Slide 3: I don’t feel well today. -You should stay home and rest. -You ought to call in sick to work. -You ’d better stay home or you’ll get sicker. Slide 4: My in-laws are coming to visit tomorrow and my house is a mess! -You should start cleaning now. -You ought to call a maid service to help you clean. -You ’d better start cleaning quickly or you’ll mother-in-law will criticize you! Slide 5: I’m failing my history class. -You should get a tutor to help you. -You ought to talk to your teacher to see if you can do any extra work. -You ’d better improve your grade or your parents will be very upset. Slide 6: -People should recycle more. -We shouldn’t use our cars so often. -We ought to use less water each day. -We ’d better start taking care of our planet or the world our kids inherit will be much worse. -We have to start addressing environmental problems. Environmental problems *advice *stronger grammar: present forms: grammar: present forms -Always use the simple form of the verb after these -should / shouldn’t -ought to -had better -must -have to + s imple form Part 2: advice for the past: Part 2: advice for the past should have (+ past participle) s houldn’t have (+past participle) o ught to have (+past participle) *ought to (not common in negative form) Slide 9: In English, we often want to express our regrets about something we did (or didn’t do) in the past. We use past form advice to lament our mistakes. Examples ... Slide 10: Joe was late to work this morning . . . a gain! -He should have woken up earlier. -He shouldn’t have stayed out so late last night with his friends. -He shouldn’t have forgotten to set his alarm clock. -He ought to have gone to bed earlier. *NOTE: should is always more common than ought to Slide 11: The movie that we rented was boring. -We shouldn’t have rented it. -We should’ve chosen another film. -We ought to have gone to the movies instead. Slide 12: The dentist told me I have four cavities! -I should’ve taken better care of my teeth. -I shouldn’t have eaten so much sugar. -I ought to have brushed my teeth more frequently. Slide 13: Review: 1. For the present tense (NOW), what expression you choose depends on how strong you want your advice to be. -should/ought to: for your opinion, your recommendation -had better: for stronger advice, for a warning -must/have to: for obligation *remember we can also say: “If I were you, I would…” to give our opinion. Slide 14: Review: 2 . For past forms, we give advice about what we should/shouldn’t have to avoid the negative consequence. -should have / should’ve + past participle -shouldn’t have + past participle -ought to have + past participle *remember ought to is not typically used in negative form and is not as common as “should.” Slide 15: Go to our class website to practice these forms! R emember: Practice m akes p erfect!