Making Comparisonsin English: Making Comparisons in English We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things. : We often use comparisons because we want to talk about the differences between people, places, and things. Here is an example:
Janet’s house is bigger than Tom’s.
Tom’s house is a lot smaller than Janet’s.
3. Janet’s house is fancier and more elaborate than Tom’s house.
The comparative forms from the previous example are:-bigger than-smaller than-fancier than-more elaborate thanSo . . . When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more?”: The comparative forms from the previous example are: -bigger than -smaller than -fancier than -more elaborate than So . . . When do we use “–er” and when do we use “more?” Slide4: How many syllables are the words: “big” and “small?” 1
For 1-syllable adjectives,
JUST add “er” to the end.
Example: Tom is smarter than Joe.
*If the 1-syllable adjective ends with the letter “e,”
JUST add “r” to the end.
Examples: nicer wiser
**If the 1-syllable adjective has a C-V-C pattern,
Double the consonant and add “er.”
Examples: San Francisco is wetter than San Diego.
San Diego is bigger than San Francisco. Slide5:
For adjectives that end with the letter “y,”
DROP the “y” and add “ier.”
Adjective = fancy Janet’s house is fancier than Tom’s.
Adjective = pretty Janet’s house is prettier than Tom’s.
Adjective = friendly Alison is friendlier than Susan.
How many syllables is the word: elaborate? 4
(more than 1)
For adjectives that are 2 or more syllables,
use “more” + the adjective to make the comparative form.
Adjective = elaborate
Janet’s house is more elaborate than Tom’s.
Adjective = comfortable
This chair is more comfortable than that chair.
You MUST memorize these!
good = better than far = farther (further) than
bad = worse than
Adjective = good
Sara’s grades are better than Michael’s.
Never use both MORE and “ER!”
Lisa’s job is more better than mine.
Lisa’s job is better than mine.
Using “less than”
Sometimes we compare two things by using “less than.”
To do this, use LESS + adjective + THAN
When using “less than,” the adjective DOES NOT CHANGE
He is LESS energetic than my other teacher.
This class is LESS crowded than the other one.
New York City is LESS polluted than Los Angeles.
There are a few exceptions with comparative grammar . . .
These are adjectives that don’t follow the basic rules or that have more than one acceptable form. To learn these, you must memorize them.
“fun” We say: more fun funner
2. “simple” We say: more simple OR simpler
3. “narrow” We say: more narrow OR narrower
4. “quiet” We say: more quiet OR quieter Slide12:
Try these examples. Use the comparative form.
I think Social Studies is _________________ (interesting) than Math.
2. San Diego is a _____________ (pretty) city than L.A.
3. A dog is usually _______________ (friendly) than a cat.
4. It is _____________ (hot) today than it was yesterday.
5. My cousin is ______________ (rich) than I am.
6. USE LESS: Some people think that Spanish is __________________ (difficult) than English.
For Additional Explanation and Practice, go to these websites:
1. Comparative / Superlative Explanation and Quizzes:
2. Comparatives Challenge Board Game:
If you do these exercises,
the grammar will get