expressing contrast

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Expressing Contrast or Opposition:

Expressing Contrast or Opposition Using: but however, in contrast while, whereas

Showing Opposition/Contrast:

Showing Opposition/Contrast Many times in speaking or writing, we want to show the differences between two people, things, places, or situations. This week, we will practice using different terms and expressions that show contrast. This practice will help you prepare for your writing assignment…

Writing Assignment #1:

Writing Assignment #1 …to compare George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. You will focus on 3 aspects in which these two famous Presidents were different or had different lives.

Showing Opposition/Contrast:

Showing Opposition/Contrast Lets look at some ways to express differences in English. The first—and probably most common way—to show differences is to use the conjunction but . Here are some examples using but . Be sure to study the sentence structure and punctuation.

Using but::

But is a coordinating conjunction . It connects two independent sentences together to make ONE sentence. The purpose of BUT is to show that there is a difference between the ideas. Example: Ana loves History , but her brother hates it. Independent clause Independent clause Using but: 1 s entence!

Using but::

Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that connects 2 independent clauses. Example: I liked the movie , but my friend thought it was terrible. Coordinating conjunctions = and, or, but, so, etc . Independent clause Independent clause coordinating conjunction Using but: Use comma

PowerPoint Presentation:

“ however ” is similar to “ but .” The only difference is it’s location in a sentence. We said that BUT connects two independent clauses and creates ONE sentence. It is in the middle of the sentence. HOWEVER is used at the beginning of a sentence. for example… Showing Opposition/Contrast

however vs. but::

Example 1: Ana loves History , but her brother hates it. Example 2: Ana loves History . However , her brother hates it. Independent clause Independent clause however vs. but: In Example 2, we have 2 separate sentences. However is used at the beginning of the second sentence.

however vs. but::

Example 3: Washington and Lincoln were both smart , but they had different educational experiences. Example 4 : Washington and Lincoln were both smart . However , they had different educational experiences. however vs. but: In Example 3 , BUT connects 2 independent clauses and makes them ONE sentence (use a comma!). In Examples 4 , there are TWO sentences. However starts the second sentence to show a contrast with the first.

Using “in contrast”:

In contrast is another way to show the difference between two people, places, situations, etc. This term is used the same way as however. In contrast and however are more academic than BUT. Examples: 1. Julie grew up in a small family , but her best friend has a huge family. 2. Julie grew up in a small family. her best friend has a huge family. Using “in contrast” However , In contrast,

Using while/whereas::

A nother way to show the difference between two ideas is to use the terms WHILE or WHEREAS. While often has a time meaning, like “when” or “during.” Examples: 1. While I was waiting for my doctor’s appointment , I looked through several magazines. 2. I looked through several magazines while I was waiting for my doctor’s appointment. 3. I like to listen to music while I cook. Using while/whereas:

Using while/whereas::

But WHILE can also be used to show that two people, places, or situations are different. Examples: 1. While San Diego is located on the West Coast , Boston is located on the East Coast. 2. Jonathan works as a landscaper while his brother has an office job. Using while/whereas:

Using while/whereas::

WHEREAS has the same meaning and use as WHILE ; it is used to show contrast. Examples: 1. Whereas Washington grew up rich , Lincoln grew up in a poor family of farmers. 2. Melissa is a vegetarian whereas her husband eats meat. *no comma Using while/whereas:

PowerPoint Presentation:

While Kate has a dog and a cat , her sister doesn’t have any pets. Sandra enjoys living in urban areas whereas her brother prefers a more rural setting. If you start with while or whereas, you need to use a comma between clauses. No comma is necessary if you put while or whereas in the middle. Comma Rule:

Practice::

Compare the sentences below. Use but, however, in contrast, while and whereas. 1. Kevin’s family is wealthy. His girlfriend comes from a poor family. 2. Mark is a democrat. His wife is a republican. 3. San Diego is a coastal city. Las Vegas is located in the desert. 4. Lisa wants to buy an old, traditional house. Her husband prefers a new, modern condo. 5. I thought the test was difficult. My friend thought it was easy. Practice:

Keep Practicing!:

Try to use some of these terms in your writing assignment. Remember…being a good writer (in any language!) takes practice ! Keep Practicing!

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