logging in or signing up commas and seim-colons bbogage Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 277 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: May 06, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Commas and Semicolons: Commas and Semicolons How to Use them correctlyWhat are commas?: What are commas? Commas (,) are punctuation marks that separate words and word groups to help readers understand a sentence more easily. Here are the basic rules of when to use a comma in English . . . .PowerPoint Presentation: Use commas to separate items in a list (2 or more) Examples: 1. He likes mustard , ketchup , and relish on his hot dogs. 2. She has traveled to New York , Florida , and Texas—all within the last six months! Commas: Rule #1 The comma BEFORE “and” is considered OPTIONAL.PowerPoint Presentation: Use a comma after an introductory phrase Examples: 1. After dinner , we decided to take a walk in the park. 2. Despite the rain , we had a good time in Hawaii. Commas: Rule #2PowerPoint Presentation: Use a comma after an introductory phrase Examples: 1. In order to get a certificate , you must fulfill all the requirements. 2. In the beginning , John was lonely in the U.S. Commas: Rule #2 (continued)PowerPoint Presentation: Use commas to separate an appositive or interrupter : Examples: 1. Bill Gates , one of the richest men in the world , lives in Washington State. 2. Gates and his wife , I recently learned , have three children. Commas: Rule #3 Appositive: a phrase that “restates” or describes the noun. Interrupter: a phrase that “interrupts” the sentence. appositivePowerPoint Presentation: Use commas to separate appositives or interrupters from the rest of the sentence . . . Examples: 1. Mr. Smith , the mayor of our town , will speak tomorrow. 2. The mayor , I heard , is going to resign. Commas: Rule #3 (continued) appositive interrupterPowerPoint Presentation: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that connects 2 independent clauses Example: 1. Paul was confused , so he asked a question. Commas: Rule #4 Coordinating conjunctions = and, or, but, so, etc . Independent clause Independent clause s o – coordinating conjunctionPowerPoint Presentation: Use a comma after a dependent clause. In other words, use a comma when starting a sentence with a dependent clause . Commas: Rule #5 for example…PowerPoint Presentation: After I woke up , I made coffee. OR I made coffee after I woke up. If you start with AFTER, you need to use a comma between clauses; No comma is necessary if you put AFTER in the middle.PowerPoint Presentation: Use a comma to separate a quote from the rest of sentence. Examples: 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. once said , “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” 2. “I didn’t get a good description of the thief , ” the victim told the police officer. Commas: Rule #6 Quote = words someone else said.PowerPoint Presentation: DO NOT use a comma like a period. For example, don’t use a comma to separate two independent clauses (unless there is a coordinating conjunction: and, or, but, etc.) Incorrect! She works hard, I think she’ll get a raise. I want to get in shape, I joined the gym. To make correct, -Change the commas to periods. -OR, add a coordinating conjunction after the comma to create a compound sentence. Comma Misuse:PowerPoint Presentation: Incorrect! She works hard, I think she’ll get a raise. I want to get in shape, I joined the gym. Correct: She works hard . I think she’ll get a raise. I want to get in shape . I joined the gym. Correct: She works hard , and I think she’ll get a raise. I want to get in shape , so I joined the gym. Corrected Sentences: Change commas to periods. Keep commas but ADD coordinating conjunction.introducing . . . : introducing . . . The semicolonWhat is a semicolon?: What is a semicolon? A semicolon is not a comma, a nd it’s not a period. It’s kind of “in the middle” of the two. It is a break in thought, but not a complete stop… more like a longer pause . More explanation…PowerPoint Presentation: We use a semicolon between independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction . When we use a semicolon, the two clauses are similar or related in some way. Examples: 1. I love Italian food ; p izza is my favorite. 2. Kathy travels a lot ; s he went to five different countries last year. Semicolon Rule: No capital letter after a semicolonMore information . . .: More information . . . A semicolon can be used instead of a period if there is a connection or relation between the two sentences. We usually don’t use two semicolons in a row (like we do with periods). Also, don’t overuse semicolons. They are NOT as common as periods. Example: Kelly works hard ; it’s no surprise that she got a raise ; she deserves it. Change the second semicolon to a period. Don’t use two in a row.Practice . . . : Practice . . . . . . is the key! This week, we will practice writing with commas and semicolons. Writing is hard, but don’t give up! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.