Law Enforcement Biometric Solution

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT BIOMETRIC FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION BAYOMETRIC MARCH 10 2017 Written Compiled By Danny Thakkar CEO Co-Founder

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“ The law enforcement biometrics market was valued at 838 million and it continues to rise. This market is going to reach 1.1 billion in 2021. ” FROST AND SULLIVAN A Growth Partnership Company

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT INTRODUCTION The application of biometric technology is growing rapidly in the field of law enforcement. According to Frost and Sullivan the law enforcement biometrics market was valued at 838 million and it continues to rise. The consulting firm predicts that this market is going to reach 1.1 billion in 2021. This rapid rise is fuelled by the technological improvements in biometrics as well as the growing concerns about terrorism. Biometrics is now becoming an essential component of law enforcement at all levels – municipal state and national and are being used in military and government facilities all around the world. Figure 1: Biometrics Market Revenue 2015 - 2021 Billion Source: IndustryARC Although biometric systems such as fingerprint recognition have aided law enforcement agencies for more than a century to identify and track criminals their use has significantly increased over the last decade and a half and this trend continues to grow. Some prominent examples of biometrics law enforcement include the use of biometric technology among the San Diego police and more broadly California. On a larger scale the collaboration of FBI’s Next Generation Identification NGI biometric system with the UK’s National Police Database is proving to be a valuable resource for investigation and identification of criminals. BACKGROUND AND EVOLUTION OF BIOMETRICS IN LAW ENFORCEMENT Biometrics has been used in law enforcement efforts for over a century and fingerprints are quite synonymous with criminal investigations. The FBI has always spearheaded the adoption of biometric technology in law enforcement and was responsible for national fingerprints collection in 1924. Fingerprint identification showed its presence in the early twentieth century and police started using fingerprints to identify suspects from latent fingerprints or link them to their criminal records. Image 1: Fingerprint biometrics and law enforcement have a very long history A fingerprint is an inherent characteristic of an individual and is irrefutable due to its unique nature of individual identity. Even twins have different sets of fingerprints and these do not change over time. The ridges on the surface of the fingerprint are responsible for its

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT uniqueness and every individual has a different ridge pattern. This is what makes it possible to identify a person from the entire global population using his or her fingerprint. Fingerprint recognition is one of the many forms of biometric authentication technology and is the automated method of matching two human fingerprints. In 1980 law enforcement agencies in the U.S. started to implement a biometric based system called the Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems AFIS for use in criminal cases. This biometric identification system used digital imaging to capture analyse and store fingerprints. This system for fingerprint storage and analysis was later adopted in many other countries. In 2008 Chinese police officials adopted a fingerprint system called Automated Biometric Identification System ABIS which allowed the cross checking of inmates fingerprints for possible matches within the database. Image 2: In mid-1980s local law enforcement agencies started using AFIS To boost the sharing of electronic fingerprint data the Criminal Justice Information Services CJIS division of the FBI started maintaining the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System IAFIS from July 1999. It was the world’s largest person-centric database containing more than 47 million fingerprints of individuals and their corresponding criminal history. This repository of valuable biometric information about offenders could be accessed by federal state as well as local law enforcement agencies. This fingerprint identification system had various capabilities such as automated searches for ten print and latent fingerprint images and text searches based on the descriptive information as well as exchanging of fingerprints and responses electronically. Although the IAFIS was a comprehensive system the evolving needs of law enforcement officials and rising security concerns prompted the development of a new system called the Next Generation Identification NGI to replace the IAFIS. The NGI was a 1 billion program and designed to improve the performance of ten print and latent fingerprint searches. In addition to fingerprints it also combines other biometric modalities such as iris scans and voice data into a searchable platform. The advancements in biometric technology have equipped NGI with advanced fingerprint identification capabilities and it is the next level in FBIs biometric identification services. Currently NGI is the largest database in the world containing biometric data of criminals. To further promote the integration of biometric technology in law enforcement another initiative was undertaken by the FBI in collaboration with the Department of Defense. This led to the formation of the Biometric Center of Excellence BCOE in late 2007 in

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT Clarksburg West Virginia which combines the research of both these agencies. The application of biometrics in law enforcement has truly evolved with data being collected at greater frequency and stored for longer duration. As such technical and legal structures are also being developed for better sharing of these data and to streamline searches between local state and federal agencies. These initiatives have made the collection and analysis of data much easier and have been a blessing for law enforcement agencies. FACTORS DRIVING THE INTEGRATION OF BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGY IN LAW ENFORCEMENT Image 3: Mobile biometric identification technology for surveillance and detection One of the primary factors driving the increasing adoption of biometric fingerprint systems are security concerns regarding domestic and international terrorism the increasing occurrences of criminal activities and gun violence. The government is keen on investing in technologies that can provide better security and reliable user authentication and access control. Mobile biometric identification technology can also be highly beneficial to police patrols. The Law Enforcement and Homeland Security sectors are constantly faced with security threats as is evident from the growing numbers of terrorist attacks and data thefts. Thus the need for stricter security controls is driving the law enforcement biometrics market. Although the United States and Europe dominate the law enforcement biometrics market considerable growth opportunities in law enforcement biometrics are also seen in the Asia Pacific region. The key areas of demand are mostly in border control and implementation of a national ID system. New police databases are getting installed or the current ones are getting upgraded to better aid criminal investigations and increase the operational efficiency. According to TechNavio the North American law enforcement biometrics market is forecasted to increase at a CAGR of 18.2 during 2013-2018 whereas the global law enforcement biometrics market at a CAGR of 13.35 during the period 2014-2019. Thus we see that the implementation of biometric based law enforcement applications are increasing all over the world and governments agencies have started to realise the immense potential of biometric technology.

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT HOW IS BIOMETRICS HELPING LAW ENFORCEMENT In most scenarios law enforcement directly deals with establishing identity i.e. accurately linking the wanted individuals to their actions or figuring out the identity of a person by searching a database of criminal records for a positive match. Generally in these situations a 1:N comparison is done where the suspect’s biometric sample is checked against the entire database for possible matches. The biometric sample can either be collected directly from the individual or procured from a crime scene e.g. fingerprints left behind on a weapon which is then compared with a database containing hundreds of thousands or even millions of templates in search of a positive match. It is critically important to accurately identify the individuals convicted of a crime so that innocents do not suffer and offenders are booked appropriately. Figure 2: Working model of a typical biometric system The adoption of biometrics provides an extra layer of security in individual identification and data access. Biometric traits or identifiers are part of the individual’s being and hence extremely reliable. In biometrics individuals are identified based on who they are as opposed to what they know or what they have. This form of identification is extremely difficult to defraud under normal conditions and are able to link an individual more accurately than any other available identification method. As such biometric identification systems are extremely important to police work and help ensure public safety and prevention of crimes. Fingerprint biometric is used to track inmates in jails and correctional facilities and to process arrests quickly and efficiently. Due to the rapid developments in the field of biometric technology it is also possible for law enforcement officials to have quick accurate and up-to-date criminal background checks of workers in the public domain. One example of this new technology is the NGIs Rap Back feature which provides authorised agencies with on-going activity notifications of individuals who hold positions of trust or those individuals who are under some criminal investigation thereby eliminating the need for repeated background checks. The Rap Back features uses fingerprint modality to identify suspects arrested and prosecuted for crimes. Nowadays the time taken to search through a database has been drastically reduced which allows investigators to spend this freed up time on performing other high level tasks thereby speeding up the investigation process. Biometrics is proving its utility in multiple areas of law enforcement such as checking of individual’s identity in case of routine traffic violations correctional facility management criminal investigations border control and drug and human trafficking.

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT INTEGRATING FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION IN LAW ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS Fingerprint recognition can be very easily and quickly integrated into law enforcement systems using a biometric solution known as Touch N Go. It is a developer friendly solution which allows rapid fingerprint integration and does not take months or hours. The unique nature of the integration methodology of Touch N Go allows fingerprint feature to be integrated into any application with just four lines of code and with no prior experience in fingerprint technology. Touch N Go has inbuilt features such as fingerprint deduplication and fingerprint quality checks. These checks are completed in the background and ensure that duplicate fingerprints do not get enrolled in system and only the best quality fingerprints get enrolled. Touch N Go is thus able to provide a high level of accuracy security and a solid infrastructure that are the pre-requisites for an efficient law enforcement system. Touch N Go has support for multiple programming languages and developers also have access to inbuilt applications and source codes. It is affordable and a high performing solution with support for a variety of fingerprint readers. DIFFERENT BIOMETRIC MODALITIES THAT ARE USED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT Fingerprints are one of the most common types of biometric data that is collected by law enforcement agencies. It has been used for more than a century to identify suspects as well as store information about offenders and their records within the law enforcement system. Although fingerprint recognition has played a prominent role in law enforcement for a very long time and still is nowadays other biometric modalities such as facial recognition iris scanning and DNA analysis are also gaining acceptance in this sector. Facial recognition is also gaining popularity as a surveillance tool. It can identify persons of interest on camera and is also capable of performing other complex functions such as connecting varied information types from CCTV footages database records or social media photographs and then linking the combined information to a single individual. The system is automated fast and has surpassed human abilities. With the help of data derived from social media facial recognition is nowadays being used to combat terrorism locate missing children as well as improve surveillance. Police personnel in San Diego are using a facial recognition system that was originally used by U.S. military and intelligence agencies to identify suspects in real-time. Image 4: Local law enforcement agencies are using facial recognition software to identify suspects

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BIOMETRICS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT Bayometric 1743 Park Avenue San Jose CA 95126 salesbayometric.co.uk t. 877.917.3287 USA t. 408.940.3955 INT Law enforcement agencies have also started creating multimodal databases which combine different biometric modalities such as fingerprint recognition DNA iris scans etc. An example of a multimodal biometrics database is the Next Generation Identification System NGI which contains almost 125 million fingerprints and 24 million mug shots. CONCLUSION Biometrics technology has proved their utility in different law enforcement scenarios and holds tremendous potential in the future. Biometric identification methods help to speed up the identification process in situations where information is lacking or seem suspicious. They are considered the complementary tools to effective law enforcement. AUTHOR DANNY THAKKAR CEO Co-Founder Danny Thakkar is the CEO and Co-Founder of Bayometric one of the leading biometric solution providers in the world. He has been in the Biometric Industry for 10+ years and has extensive experience across public and private sector verticals. Currently he is chief evangelist for Touch N Go.

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COPYRIGHT Copyright © 2017 Bayometric LLC. All rights reserved. This white paper was written designed and created by Bayometric. Information contained in this whitepaper is the copyright of Bayometric. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared copied published and distributed in whole or in part without restriction of any kind provided that the above copyright notice and this section are included on all such copies and derivative works. However this document itself may not be modified in any way including by removing the copyright notice or references to Bayometric LLC without the permission of the copyright owners. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and Bayometric LLC disclaims all warranties express or implied including but not limited to any warranty that the use of the information herein will not infringe any ownership rights or any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. REFERENCES 1. GLOBAL LAW ENFORCEMENT BIOMETRICS MARKET 2015-2019 - Technavio 2. Biometric Technologies in Policing - ROBYN CAPLAN IFEOMA AJUNWA ALEX ROSENBLAT and DANAH BOYD DATA CIVIL RIGHTS 3. Law Enforcement Biometrics Month: Next Generation Identification - FIND BIOMETRICS 4. Next Generation Identification NGI - FBI 5. Researchers Find Flaws In Police Facial Recognition Technology - NPR 6. Law enforcement increasing use of facial recognition technology - CBS NEWS 7. Half of US adults are recorded in police facial recognition databases study says - The Guardian

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