Determinants of Health

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Determinants of Health : 

Determinants of Health Dr.N.Bayapa Reddy MD Asst.Professor Dept.of Community Medicine Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre

Spectrum of Health : 

Spectrum of Health POSITIVE HEALTH BETTER HEALTH FREEDOM FROM SICKNESS UNRECOGNISED SICKNESS MILD SICKNESS SEVERE SICKNESS DEATH

Determinants of Health : 

Determinants of Health Biological Behavioural and Socio-cultural Environmental Socio-economic Health services Aging of Population Gender Other factors

Slide 4: 

Societies Health Individuals Communities Biological Behaviouraol Science & Technology Aging of Population Socio-cultural Health System Socio-economic Environmental Families Information & Communication Gender Equity & Social Justice Human Rights

Determinants of Health : 

Determinants of Health Biological Behavioural and Socio-cultural Environmental Socio-economic Health services Aging of Population Gender Other factors

Biological determinants : 

Biological determinants Genetic : Chromosomal anomalies Errors of Metabolism Mental retardation Karyotype – Genotype Environmental factors

Behavioural and Socio-cultural : 

Behavioural and Socio-cultural Life style (the way people live) Culture, Behaviour, Personal habits Parents, peer groups, friends, siblings, schools, mass media

Healthy Life Styles : 

Healthy Life Styles Adequate nutrition enough sleep Sufficient physical activity

Harmful Life Styles : 

Harmful Life Styles Lack of sanitation Poor nutrition Personal hygeine Elementary Human habits, customs and cultural patterns

Diseases linked to Life styles : 

Diseases linked to Life styles Coronary Hearth Diseases Obesity Lung Cancer Drug addiction

Environment : 

Environment Internal environment ( cells, tissues, organs ) - Harmonious functioning External environment: Physical Biological Psychosocial Domestic (micro) environment: way of living, eating habits, smoking, drinking, use of drugs etc.,

Environment contd…… : 

Environment contd…… Occupational environment Socio-economic environment Moral environment

Socio-economic conditions : 

Socio-economic conditions Per capita GNP Education Nutrition Employment Housing Political system

Health services : 

Health services Immunisation of children Provision of safe drinking water Care of pregnant and children Equitably distributed Accessible Primary Health care

Aging of the population : 

Aging of the population By 2020 – 1 Billion are aged > 60 2/3 are living in developing countries

Gender : 

Gender Women issues 1993 – Global Commission on Women’s Health Nutrition, reproductive health, violence, aging, life styles. Occupational problems

Other factors : 

Other factors Industrialisation Information technology Communication Food and agriculture, industry, social welfare, rural development, policies

Slide 18: 

Ecology of Health

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES SOCIETAL EVENTS Economic impoverishment War or civil conflict Population growth and migration Urban decay Use of high-density facilities (e.g., prisons, day care)

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES HEALTH CARE New medical devices Organ or tissue transplantation Drugs causing immunosuppression Widespread use of antibiotics

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES FOOD PRODUCTION Globalization of food supplies Changes in food processing, packaging, and preparation

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES HUMAN BEHAVIOR Sexual behavior Drug use Travel Diet Outdoor recreation Use of day care facilities

Slide 23: 

Speed of Global Travel in Relation to World Population Growth

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES Deforestation and/or reforestation Changes in water ecosystems Flood/drought Famine Global warming

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES PUBLIC HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE Curtailment or reduction in prevention programs Inadequate communicable disease surveillance Lack of trained personnel Epidemiologists Laboratory scientists Vector and rodent control specialists

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES : 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO NEW DISEASES MICROBIAL ADAPTATION AND CHANGE Changes in virulence and toxin production Development of drug resistance Microbes as cofactors in chronic diseases Man and animal/bird co-habitation

Responsibility of Health : 

Responsibility of Health Individual Responsibility Community Responsibility State Responsibility International Responsibility

Slide 28: 

Thank you

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