Social Sciences & Medicine: Social Sciences & Medicine Dr. N. Bayapa Reddy MD Asst. Professor Dept. of Community Medicine Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre Trichy, Tamilnadu Introduction: Introduction Social & Behavioural sciences – those disciplines committed to the scientific examination of human behaviour . Social context of Medicine: Social context of Medicine Health cannot be isolated from its social context. Social and economic factors have as much influence on health as medical interventions. All these factors have a direct bearing on the incidence, course and outcome of a wide variety of communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as on may other health problems besetting the world today. They also have an important effect on the provision of health care to all strata of society Poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, lack of education, inadequate housing, unemployment, poor working conditions, cultural and behavioural factors all predispose to ill health. Slide 4: understanding of the behaviour of individuals and groups who live together and share certain values of life. Man is a social animal The patient is no longer considered as one who is under strict laboratory control, but an individual with personal idiosyncrasies, erratic habits, customs and beliefs reacting on his body and mind. Slide 5: DEMOGRAPHIC ECONOMIC POLITICAL LEGAL RELIGIOUS EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNICATIONS MIGRATION URBANIZATION LIFE EXPECTANCY MARRIAGE FERTILITY ROLE OF WOMEN CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES (income, family life, housing,employment, stresses and crises, social support etc. INDIVIDUAL PREDISPOSITIONS (inheritance, perinatal events, previous accidents, upbringing, childhood nutrition, etc) ECOLOGICAL PREDISPOSTIONS (community values, socially prescribed roles, life style, Sub-cultural behaviour patterns, etc.) OPPORTUNITIES/SITUATIONS (access to health services, exposure to pathogens, availability of education Food, sanitation, alcohol, drugs, marriage partners, etc.) HEALTH PREDISPOSING FACTORS SOCIAL/STRUCTURAL Community Health: Community Health People who need a particular service are least likely to use it or fail to secure the total benefit which is expected. A case in point is immunization against communicable diseases. Although, there is a wide range of prophylactic vaccines, immunization has not gained universal acceptance. Clinical medicine: Clinical medicine Modern diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and mental illness. These diseases have defied “cure” and prevention, and are currently the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developed societies. The clinicians also tend to believe that “psycho physiological stress reactions “ are involved in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, ulceration of intestine, skin diseases, constipation, Diarrhoea and epilepsy. It has become apparent that control of these diseases involves not merely medical care but basic changes in the behaviour and habits of the patients. Components of Social Sciences:
Components of Social Sciences Economics Political science Sociology
Social Anthropology Behavioural Sciences
Economics: Economics ECONOMICS DEALS WITH HUMAN RELATIONSHIP IN THE SPECIFIC CONTEXT OF PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, CONSUMPTION AND OWNERSHIP OF SCARCE RESOURCES, GOODS AND SERVICES. Political science: Political science STUDY OF SYSTEM OF LAWS AND INSTITUTIONS WHICH CONSTITUTE GOVERNMENT OF WHOLE SOCIETIES Sociology - Definition: Sociology - Definition Study of human relationships and human behaviour For a better understanding of the pattern of human life. Social Psychology:
Social Psychology The emphasis is on understanding the basis of perception, thought, opinion, attitudes, general
and learning in individuals and how these vary in human societies and groups. In other words, it deals with the effect of social environment on persons, their attitudes and motivations.
Social Anthropology: Social Anthropology Anthropos meaning man and logos meaning science. It is the study of the physical, social and cultural history of man. The study of human evolution, racial differences, inheritance of bodily traits, growth and decay of the human organism is called physical anthropology. The study of the development and various types of social life is called social anthropology. Slide 14: “THE SECRET OF NATIONAL HEALTH LIES IN THE HOMES OF THE PEOPLE” TAN Q Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Society organization of member agents Dynamic character Changes over time & place Important determinant of public health policies Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Community Network of human relationships Social group determined by geographical boundaries & / or common values and interests A component of the broader term society People co-operate to satisfy their basic needs May have common organisations such as schools, stores, banks etc. Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Social Structure Pattern of inter relation-ship between persons Determines social classes / levels Helps in identifying social differences Can be structured on the basis of Caste Income Occupation Education Rural / Urban Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Measuring Social Class Socio economic status scales Kuppuswamy’s scale for urban population Udai Pareekh’s scale for rural population Hollingshed scale in USA Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Social mobility Closed Class Systems Open Class Systems Socialisation A process by which an individual acquires culture & becomes a member of a social group Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Socialisation 0 5 15 25 65 Primary Socialisation Secondary Socialisation Family School / Edn. institutions Reference Groups Birth School Entry School leaving Higher Education Retirement Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Culture Socially acquired learned behaviour Product of human societies Stands for the customs, beliefs, laws, religion, moral percepts, arts & skills Important determinant of health & disease Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Acculturation – refers to “culture contact” Culture 2 Culture 1 Ways of contact Trade & Commerce Industrialisation Education Propagation of religion Conquest Sociology - Concepts: Sociology - Concepts Social Pathology Relation between disease & social conditions E.g. social pathology of accidents, cardiovascular diseases etc. Social Medicine Study of Social pathology Factors accentuating social problems Medical & public health efforts to combat this Social factors in Health & Disease: Social factors in Health & Disease Factors within the members of the group Inherent characteristics Cultural characteristics Factors in the activities of the group Political Occupation Economy Leisure behavioural pattern Mobility Social factors in Health & Disease: Social factors in Health & Disease Factors in the environment of the group Climatic & geographical variation General environment Home environment