2-Anatomy-introduction delta lec-1

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Introduction to human anatomy By Dr. Hussein Abd El-Latif Lecturer of anatomy and embryology University of Mansoura-Faculty of Medicine

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History • From three hundreds BC and second century. • Scientist Doctors and Artist would experiment and practice on the dead body. • Cadavers were positioned flat on their backs thus making it easier to draw and reference from that position.

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• Many artist such as Leonardo da Vinci began to study draw and diagram the human body.

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Definition • It is a Greek word Ana-Tome: meaning cutting up. • Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.

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Topics: • Overall idea about anatomy and methods of studying human body. • Organization of the human body. • Medical terms. • Anatomical position. • Anatomical planes. • Terms related to directions. • Body cavities

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SUBDIVISIONS • Gross Anatomy • Microscopic Anatomy • Developmental Anatomy • Specialized Branches of Anatomy

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Gross Anatomy • Regional – all structures in one part of the body such as the abdomen or leg • Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by system • Surface – study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin

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Microscopic Anatomy • Cytology – study of the cell • Histology – study of tissues

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Developmental Anatomy Embryology – Study developmental changes of the body before birth.

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Specialized Branches of Anatomy • Pathological anatomy – study of structural changes caused by disease • Radiographic anatomy – study of internal structures visualized by X ray • Molecular biology – study of anatomical structures at a sub-cellular level

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Levels of Structural Organization

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Organ System Overview • Integumentary • Forms the external body covering • Protects deeper tissue from injury • Synthesizes vitamin D • Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

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Organ System Overview • Skeletal • Protects and supports body organs • Provides muscle attachment for movement • Site of blood cell formation • Stores minerals

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Organ System Overview • Muscular • Allows locomotion • Maintains posture • Produces heat

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Organ System Overview • Nervous • Fast-acting control system • Responds to internal and external change • Activates muscles and glands

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Organ System Overview • Endocrine • Secretes regulatory hormones • Growth • Reproduction • Metabolism

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Organ System Overview • Cardiovascular • Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart • Oxygen • Carbon dioxide • Nutrients • Wastes

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Organ System Overview • Lymphatic • Returns fluids to blood vessels • Disposes of debris • Involved in immunity

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Organ System Overview • Respiratory • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen • Removes carbon dioxide

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Organ System Overview • Digestive • Breaks down food • Allows for nutrient absorption into blood • Eliminates indigestible material

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Organ System Overview • Urinary • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes • Maintains acid – base balance • Regulation of materials • Water • Electrolytes

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Organ System Overview • Reproductive • Production of offspring

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Medical Terminology

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Basic Anatomical Terminology

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Basic Anatomical Terminology

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Some Anatomical Directions • Superior and Inferior • Anterior and Posterior • Dorsal and Ventral • Proximal and Distal • Medial and Lateral

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Anatomical Position • The anatomical position is a standardized method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references. • When in the anatomical position the subject stands – standing upright – facing the observer head level – eyes facing forward – feet flat on the floor – arms at the sides – palms turned forward ventral

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Positions and Directions •Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another. •It usually along one of the three major body planes

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Positions and Directions Superior • Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body Inferior • Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body

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Positions and Directions Anterior • Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body Posterior • Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body

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Positions and Directions Medial • Refers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body Lateral • Refers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body

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Positions and Directions Distal Reference to the extremities only • Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb Proximal Reference to the extremities only • Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb

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Distal / Proximal Cont. • When you divide the skeleton into Axial Blue and Appendicular Yellow you can better understand the extremities and their roots. Proximal Distal

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Positions and Directions Superficial • Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure Deep • Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure

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Positions and Directions Ventral • Towards the front or belly – You Vent out or your nose and mouth. Dorsal • Towards the back – Like the Dorsal fin of a dolphin.

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Positions and Directions Prone • Lying face down – Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home. Supine • Lying face up – Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth. Unilateral • Pertaining to one side of the body Bilateral • Pertaining to both sides of the body

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Basic body planes or sections These terms are used for planes or sections that cut the body organs tissues or cells

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Example of how planes would cut the brain

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Anatomical Planes • Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures • Allow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different views

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Anatomical Planes Sagittal plane – The plane dividing the body into right and left portions – Midsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves

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Anatomical Planes Frontal plane – The plane dividing the body into front and back portions – Also called the Coronal plane

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Anatomical Planes Transverse plane – The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions – Also called the Horizontal plane

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Body planes and sections - cut into sections along a flat surface called a plane also called XS – cross section also called coronal

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Sectional Anatomy • Describe three-dimensional structures. • Sectional Planes: Transverse Planes- divide the body into superior/inferior sections. Frontal Planes - divide the body into anterior and posterior sections. Sagittal Planes-divide the body into left and right sections. Exactly equal halves- Midsagittal Section

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Body Cavities Embryologically the human organs develop within two major body cavities: The brain and spinal cord develop in a dorsal cavity. The remaining body organs are found in the ventral body cavity.

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Body Cavities • Cranial cavity is formed by the cranial bones. – Protects the brain • Vertebral canal is formed by bones of vertebral column. – Contains the spinal cord • Meninges – Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal

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Body Cavities • Thoracic cavity is formed by the sternum ribs and the thoracic portion of the bony vertebral column. – Also called chest cavity – Stabilized by the internal and external muscles of the chest

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Body Cavities • Other cavities are contained within the thoracic cavity: – Mediastinal cavity • Located in the central part of the thoracic cavity – Left and Right Pleural cavities • Two fluid-filled spaces that surround each lung

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Body Cavities Pericardial cavity is itself located within the middle part of the mediastinal cavity in the thoracic cavity like a set of Russian nesting dolls of decreasing size — one placed inside the other.

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Body Cavities The pericardial cavity is shown here nestled in the middle mediastinum: Left Pleural cavity Right peural cavity

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Body Cavities  Other body cavities  Oral mouth cavity contains the tongue and teeth.  Nasal cavity is part of the upper airways Chapter 23.  Orbital cavities contain the eyeballs and various nerves and blood vessels.  Middle ear cavities contain the small bones of the middle ear.  Synovial cavities are found in freely moveable joints like the large joints of the shoulder and hip.

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