DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

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This presentation includes the introduction part of the image processing with applications. lets follow and download.

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By: gln1955 (10 month(s) ago)

Mr Patil, will you pl. send the ppt,s of RADAR sysytem to my mail id gln1955@yahoo.co.in

By: natamoo (13 month(s) ago)

Mr. Patil, I went through your ppt of radar systems and found it to be very helpful. Please mail it to me at nat.amoo@yahoo.com..

By: arunvrs (16 month(s) ago)

plz mail me this ppt sir when u find time to "arunvrs2011@gmail.com: thankz in advance

By: sambharilavanya (17 month(s) ago)

basavesh_patil garu plz mail this digital img processing ppt to me when you are free

By: sambharilavanya (17 month(s) ago)

this digital img prcing ppt is very useful to me so plz mail me at "sambharimanasa@gmail.com"

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Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING Present by: B.S.Patil 2 nd year M.sc Dept. of Electronics Shankaraghatta

CONTENTS :

CONTENTS This Seminar will cover: Definition of digital image Definition of digital image processing Types of processing Fundamental Steps In Digital Image Processing Components of an Digital Image Processing System The Origins of Digital Image Processing Applications with example October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 2

Why Digital Image Processing :

Why Digital Image Processing Improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation/ perception Image processing for efficient storage and transmission Image processing for autonomous machine application October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 3

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An image may be defined as two dimensional function f( x,y ), where x and y are spatial coordinates and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates ( x,y ) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. Digital image processing refers to processing of digital images by means of a digital computer October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 4

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Element of digital image: all digital image are composed of finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value . These elements are called picture elements or image elements or pels or pixels. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 5

Types of Processing:

Types of Processing Low level processing Mid level processing High level processing October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 6

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 7 Low Level Process Input: Image Output: Image Examples: Noise removal, image sharpening Mid Level Process Input: Image Output: Attributes Examples: Object recognition, segmentation High Level Process Input: Attributes Output: Understanding Examples: Scene understanding, autonomous navigation Low Level Process Input: Image Output: Image Examples: Noise removal, image sharpening Mid Level Process Input: Image Output: Attributes Examples: Object recognition, segmentation High Level Process Input: Attributes Output: Understanding Examples: Scene understanding, autonomous navigation Low level processing : primitive operation such as image processing to reduce noise contrast enhancement and image sharpening. A low level processing is characterized by the fact that its input and output are image.

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Mid level processing: it involves tasks such as segmentation(partitioning an image into regions or objects), description of those objects to reduce them to a suitable for computer processing and recognition of individual object. A mid level processing is characterized by kits input being images but its outputs are attributes extracted from those image ( Ex: edges, contours and the identity of individual objects). October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 8

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High level processing : it involves making sense of an ensemble of recognized objects as in image analysis , ie performing the cognitive functions normally associated with vision. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 9

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Image Acquisition Image Restoration Morphological Processing Segmentation Representation & Description Image Enhancement Object Recognition Colour Image Processing Image Compression Problem Domain Wavelets and multiresolution processing knowledge Base Outputs of these processes generally are images Outputs of these processes generally are image attributes Fundamental steps in digital image processing

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Image Acquisition This is the first stage and could be as simple as being given an image that is already in digital form. Stage involves pre-processing techniques. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 11

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 12 Remember digitization implies that a digital image is an approximation of a real scene

Image Enhancement :

Image Enhancement Process of manipulating an image so that the result is more suitable than the original for specific application. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 13

This refers to processing an image so that the result is more suitable for particular applications.:

This refers to processing an image so that the result is more suitable for particular applications. Sharpening or de blurring an out an out of focus image High lighting edges Removing image contrast October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 14

Image Restoration :

Image Restoration It is an area that also deals with improving the appearance of an image. However enhancement which subjective image restoration is objective. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 15

This may be considered as reversing the damage done to an image by known case:

This may be considered as reversing the damage done to an image by known case Removing of blur caused by linear motion Removal of optical distortions October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 16

Colour Image processing :

Colour Image processing October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 17 The use of color in image processing is motivated by two principle factors. First, color is powerful descriptor that often simplifies object identification and extraction from scene. Second, humans can discern thousands of color shades and intensities, compared to about only about two dozen shades of gray.

Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing :

Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 18 A wavelet is a waveform with finite duration and has an average value of zero Wavelets tend to be irregular and symmetric unlike Sinusoids which are smooth and predictable .

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 19 Foundation for representing images in various degree of resolution. In particular for image data compression and pyramidal representation, in which images are subdivided successively into smaller regions.

Image Compression :

Image Compression October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 20 Image compression is minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file without degrading the quality of the image to an unacceptable level. The reduction in file size. The objective of image compression is to reduce irrelevance and redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.

Morphological Processing:

Morphological Processing October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 21 Morphological image processing techniques are useful for extracting image components that are useful in representing and describing region shapes. The filters can be described using set theoretic notation and implemented using simple computer algorithms based on these

Segmentation :

Segmentation October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 22 segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of pixels). The goal of segmentation is to simplify or change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images.

Segmentation involves subdividing an image into constituent parts or isolating certain aspects of an image:

Segmentation involves subdividing an image into constituent parts or isolating certain aspects of an image Finding lines, circles or particular shapes in an image In an aerial photograph identifying cars, trees, buildings or roads. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 23

Representation and Description :

Representation and Description October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 24 Its always follow the output of a segmentation stage, which usually is raw pixel data, constituting either the boundary of region or all the points in the region itself. In either case, converting the data to a form suitable for computer processing.

Object Recognition :

Object Recognition October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 25 Recognition is the process that assigns a label to an object based on its descriptors.

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This means assigning labels to objects based on their descriptors (from the first previous step), and assigning meanings to those labels so we identify the particular digits and system will recognizing the object. October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 26

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Image Display Computer Mass Storage Hardcopy Specialized image processing hardware Image processing software Image sensors Problem domain Network Components of an Image Processing System

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 28 Image sensor is a devices which acquire digital images. Specialized image processing hardware usually consists of the digitizer and hardware that performs the other primitive operations such as ALU. The computer in an image processing system is general purpose computer and range from a PC to a supercomputer.

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 29 Software for image processing consists of specialized modules that perform specific tasks. Mass storage for store the digital image. Image displays are used to display the image for user purpose. Hardcopy devices for recording images include laser printers, film cameras, CD-ROM disks etc.. Networking is almost a default function in any computer system.

History of digital image processing:

History of digital image processing Early 1920s: One of the first applications of digital imaging was in the news paper industry October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 30 The Bartlane cable picture transmission service Images were transferred by submarine cable between London and New York Pictures were coded for cable transfer and reconstructed at the receiving end on a telegraph printer

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 31 Mid to late 1920s: Improvements to the Bartlane system resulted in higher quality images New reproduction processes based on photographic techniques Increased number of tones in reproduced images

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 32 1960s: Improvements in computing technology and the onset of the space race led to a surge of work in digital image processing 1964: Computers used to improve the quality of images of the moon taken by the Ranger 7 probe Such techniques were used in other space missions

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 33 1970s: Digital image processing begins to be used in medical applications 1979: Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield & Prof. Allan M. Cormack share the Nobel Prize in medicine for the invention of tomography, the technology behind Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT) scans

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 34 1980s - Today: The use of digital image processing techniques has exploded and they are now used for all kinds of tasks in all kinds of areas Image enhancement/restoration Artistic effects Medical visualisation Industrial inspection Law enforcement Human computer interfaces

Application with examples:

Application with examples

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 36 One of the most common uses of DIP techniques: improve quality, remove noise etc

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 37 Used in Hubble Telescope Launched in 1990 the Hubble telescope can take images of very distant objects However, an incorrect mirror made many of Hubble’s images useless Image processing techniques were used to fix this

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 38 Artistic effects are used to make images more visually appealing, to add special effects and to make composite images Used in Artistic effects

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 39 Digital image processing techniques are used extensively to manipulate satellite imagery Terrain classification In Geographic Information Systems

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 40 Number plate recognition for speed cameras/automated toll systems Fingerprint recognition Enhancement of CCTV images Image processing techniques are used extensively by law enforcers

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 41 Try to make human computer interfaces more natural. For example Face recognition

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 42 Conclusion

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October 18, 2012 B S Patil/Dept of electronics/Shankaraghatta 43 “Digital Image Processing”, Second edition Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods “Digital Image Processing”, using mat lab Rafael C. Gonzalez & Richard E. Woods Reference

Questions & Comments:

Questions & Comments