INTRODUCTION TO RADAR SYSTEM

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this presentation included introduction part of the radar system with applications. so Lets follow and download.

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Introduction to Radar system Present by- B.S.Patil 2 nd year M.sc Dept. of Electronics Kuvempu University Shankaraghatta

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The ability of human eye is lies in recognizing the colour, and finer details of an object at shorter distances, without any obstructing media . The eye ceases its ability in sighting the object at longer distances. Radar is an electromagnetic system which is an alternative approach to extend vision ability. Basic concept of Radar Radar is basically a means of gathering information about distant object of targets by sending electromagnetic wave at them and analyzing the received echo's.

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conclusion for above four slides In the above images, there is a coin we are easily identify but in the last image we can’t identify easily so in such time radar can identify the coin very easily.

RADAR:

RADAR Ra dio D etection A nd R anging

Radar:

Radar

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Principle of Radar Basic objective of a radar is to measure the range to the target. A well designed modern radars can extract more information about the target than merely range. Basically an elementary radar system consists a transmitter and receiver, each connected to a directional antenna. The transmitter transmits electromagnetic energy through directional antenna. The intercepted energy from the target reradiates in all directions. This reradiated energy in back direction towards receiver is of prime importance in radar system.

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The time delay between the transmitted pulse and the received echo can be used to determine the distance to the target (distance = speed × time). Radar Ranging details Most radars work by transmitting a pulse of electromagnetic energy at a target and then listening with a receiver for the reflected echo from the target. Since electromagnetic waves travel at the velocity of light [186,411 miles (300,000 kilometers) per second]

Radar Ranging equation :

Radar Ranging equation The range R can be calculated from the elementary relation ie, distance = velocity * time In our case, C = velocity of EM wave Tr = time measured distance = 2R the forward distance + back word distance Thus we can write a range equation in following way 2R = C *Tr R = 0.5 *C*Tr

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Bock Diagram of Radar

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Bock Diagram of Radar

Transmitter: :

Transmitter: This consists a microwave devices that generates EM energy of desired frequency and power in the micro wave range. The energy generated may be in short pulse form of continuous wave .

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Receiver and Antenna: Receiver : It will analyze the received echoes and present desired information in the suitable form. Antenna : Almost all antennas used with radars will be will directional antennas. The same antenna is often used for both transmission and reception. According to the type antenna will changed.

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Duplexer or circulator : Since same antenna is used for both transmission and reception, therefore there must be a device that provides solution between transmitting and received energy, also allows energy flow in proper directions. This can be implemented with different devices in different radars. A duplexer is used in pulsed radar where as a circulator is used in CW-radar,

Radar Frequencies::

Radar Frequencies: The frequency range of conventional radars from about 220MHz to 35GHz, but there are other specific frequencies at which special radars operate. At the lower end of microwave frequency range at about 4 or 5Hz and upper end microwave frequency range at about 94GHz. During world war 2 nd , letter codes such as S,X and L were used to designate the distinct frequency bands at which microwave radar was being developed.

Radar Frequency Bands :

Radar Frequency Bands Band Frequency Wave Length Description L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long' S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short' X 8–12 GHz 2.5–3.75 cm missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.

FIELDS OF APPLICATION:

FIELDS OF APPLICATION MILITARY REMOTE SENSING AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND HIGHWAY SECURITY AIRCRAFT SAFETY AND NAVIGATION SHIP SAFETY SPACE MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS

MILITARY:

IMPORTANT PART OF AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM,OPERATION OF OFFENSIVE MISSILES & OTHER WEAPONS TARGET DETECTION, TARGET TRACKING & WEAPON CONTROL TRACKS THE TARGETS, DIRECTS THE WEAPON TO AN INTERCEPT AND ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENGAGEMENT ALSO USED IN AREA, GROUND & AIR SURVEILLANCE. MILITARY

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WEATHER OBSERVATION-T.V.REPORTING PLANETARY OBSERVATION BELOW GROUND PROBING MAPPING OF SEA ICE REMOTE SENSING

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USED TO SAFELY CONTROL AIR TRAFFIC IN THE VICINITY OF THE AIRPORTS AND ENROUTE GROUND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC & AIRCRAFT TAXING MAPPING OF REGIONS OF RAIN IN THE VICINITY OF AIRPORTS & WEATHER AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL

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RADAR SPEED METERS ARE USED BY POLICE FOR ENFORCING SPEED LIMITS IT IS USED FOR WARNING OF PENDING COLLISION, ACTUATING AIR BAG OR WARNING OF OBSTRUCTION OR PEOPLE BEHIND A VEHICLE OR IN THE SIDE BLIND ZONE LAW ENFORCEMENT & HIGHWAY SAFETY

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AIRBORNE WEATHER AVOIDANCE RADAR OUTLINES THE REGIONS OF PRECIPITATION & DANGEROUS WIND SHEAR LOW FLYING MILITARY AIRCRAFTS RELY ON TERRAIN AVOIDANCE & TERRAIN FOLLOWING RADARS TO AVOID COLLISION WITH HIGH TERRAIN & OBSTRUCIONS AIRCRAFT SAFETY & NAVIGATION

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RADAR IS FOUND ON SHIPS & BOATS FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE & TO OBSERVE NAVIGATION BUOYS, WHEN THE VISIBILITY IS POOR SHORE BASED RADARS ARE USED FOR SURVEILLANCE OF HARBOURS & RIVER TRAFFIC SHIP SAFETY

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SPACE VEHICLES HAVE USED RADAR FOR CLOCKING & FOR LANDING ON THE MOON USED FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION GROUND BASED RADARS ARE USED FOR DETECTION & TRACKING OF SATELLITES & OTHER SPACE OBJECTS USED FOR RADIO ASTRONOMY SPACE

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IT IS USED FOR NON CONTACT MEASUREMENT OF SPEED & DISTANCE USED FOR OIL & GAS EXPLORATION USED TO STUDY MOVEMENTS OF INSECTS & BIRDS OTHER APPLICATIONS

HHR APPLICATIONS:

HHR APPLICATIONS SECURITY & BORDER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM UNDER GROUND, THROUGH-WALL & OCEAN IMAGING AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY, INCLUSING COLLISION-AVOIDANCE & INTELLIGENT CRUISE-CONTROL SYSTEM “SMART” DIVICE SUCH AS LIGHTS, HEATERS & TOOLS THAT AUTOMATICALLY TURN ON OR OFF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS

DAY TO DAY APPLICATIONS:

DAY TO DAY APPLICATIONS

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MICROPOWER IMPULSE RADAR SENSORS USED IN PROXIMITY FUSES HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY TESTED. THE FUSES TRIGGER SMALL BOMBS TO DETONATE AT ABOUT 1 METER FROM THE GROUND. DETONATORS

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LIVERMORE ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIST USED A MICROPOWER IMPULSE RADAR SENSOR ATTACHED TO AN EXTENDER TO SEARCH FOR TRAPPED PEOPLE THROUGH RUBBLE AT GROUND ZERO OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER FOLLOWING THE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001, TERRORIST ATTACKS. A LIFE SAVER

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A) THE HERMES (HIGH-PERFORMANCE ELECTROMAGNETIC ROADWAY MAPPING AND EVALUATION SYSTEM) BRIDGE INSPECTOR IS A RADAR-BASED SENSING SYSTEM MOUNTED IN A TRAILER. (B) THE ARRAY OF 64 RADAR MODULES LOCATED BENEATH THE TRAILER PRODUCES IMAGES OF THE INSIDES OF BRIDGE DECKS. (C) THIS IMAGE SHOWS A SUSPECT AREA WHERE A DELAMINATION IN THE CONCRETE MAY HAVE OCCURRED. HERMES- ROAD MAINTAINANCE

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THIS VEHICLE TOWS THE ANTENNA TRANSCEIVER GROUP (ATG) WITH THE INTEGRATED MODULAR AZIMUTH POSITIONING SYSTEM (MAPS) MOUNTED ON THE TRAILER. THIS IS CONTROLLED BY AN OPERATOR EITHER LOCATED WITHIN THE SHELTER OR REMOTELY LOCATED GHANTA

TUNNEL WALL INSPECTION:

TUNNEL WALL INSPECTION

MINE INSPECTION:

MINE INSPECTION

LOCATING UNDER GROUND PIPES:

LOCATING UNDER GROUND PIPES

LOCATING GRAVE:

LOCATING GRAVE

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THE ORIGINS RADAR Radar History The bottom line… Anyway you slice it, Radar technology is not new! Guglielmo Marconi James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) Christian Huelsmeyer Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

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THE ORIGINS RADAR The principle of radar detection as old as that the subject of elctromagnetic theory itself. In the 1886 Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected by metallic and dielectrics bodies. In 1903 a German Engineer, Hulsmeyer experimented with the detection of radio waves reflected from ships.

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Later in 1992, Marconi recognizes the potentialities of short waves for radio detection and he succeeded only for radio communication. CW- radar has been used to detect a wooden ship by A.H. Taylor and L.C. Young. The pulsed radar detection principle was introduced in 1925 by Breit and Tuve . THE ORIGINS RADAR

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References : Introduction to RADAR systems, by Merrill L. skolink . Advanced Communication, by VTU. G oogle Search .

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Thank You