Conservation of water : Conservation of water Water a natural resource : Water a natural resource Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. Its molecule contains one oxygen and two Hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambitient conditions but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state , ice, and gaseous state, water vapors or steam.
Water covers 70.9% of the earths surface[and is vital for all known forms of life. Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapours , clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and presipitation.oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Typical household water use : Typical household water use Water conservation!!! : Water conservation!!! Water conservation can be defined as:
Any beneficial deduction in water loss, use, or waste
A reduction in water use accomplished by implementation of water conservation or water efficiency measures; or,
Improved water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water. A water conservation measure is an action, behavioral change, device, technology, or improved design or process implemented to reduce water loss, waste, or use. Water efficiency is a tool of water conservation. That results in more efficient water use and thus reduces water demand. The value and cost-effectiveness of a water efficiency measure must be evaluated in relation to its effects on the use and cost of other natural resources (e.g. energy or chemicals). Water efficiency : Water efficiency Water efficiency can be defined as the accomplishment of a function, task, process, or result with the minimal amount of water feasible, or an indicator of the relationships between the amount of water needed for a specific purpose and the amount of water used, occupied or delivered. Goals of water conservation : Goals of water conservation The goals of water conservation efforts include:
Sustainability . To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate.
Energy conservation. Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world (for example, California) over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management.
Habitat conservation. Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructure. Social solutions : Social solutions Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Common strategies include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates (charging progressively higher prices as water use increases), on lawn sprinklers .Cities in dry climates often require or encourage the installation of Xeriscaping or natural landscaping in new homes to reduce outdoor water usage.
One fundamental conservation goal is universal metering. The prevalence of residential water metering varies significantly worldwide. Recent studies have estimated that water supplies are metered in less than 30% of UK households, and about 61% of urban Canadian homes (as of 2001). Although individual water meters have often been considered impractical in homes with private wells or in multifamily buildings, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that metering alone can reduce consumption by 20 to 40 percent .In addition to raising consumer awareness of their water use, metering is also an important way to identify and localize Water leaks Household applications : Household applications Water-saving technology for the home includes:
Low-flow shower heads (sometimes called energy-efficient shower heads as they also use less energy, due to less water being heated).[
Low flush toilets and Composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water.
Dual flushed toilets created by Caroma includes two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets.
Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets.
Faucet aerators, which break water flow into fine droplets to maintain "wetting effectiveness" while using less water. An additional benefit is that they reduce splashing while washing hands and dishes.
Wastewater use or recycling systems, allowing Other applications : Other applications Rainwater harvesting
High-efficiency clothes washers
Weather-based irrigation controllers
Garden hose nozzles that shut off water when it is not being used, instead of letting a hose run.
Automatic faucet is a water conservation faucet that eliminates water waste at the faucet. It automates the use of faucets without the using of hands. Commercial applications : Commercial applications Waterless urinals
Water less car washes.
Infrared or foot-operated faucets, which can save water by using short bursts of water for rinsing in a kitchen or bathroom
Pressurized water brooms which can be used instead of a hose to clean sidewalks
X-ray film processor re-circulation systems
Cooling tower conductivity controllers
Water-saving steam sterilizers, for use in hospitals and health care facilities. Minimum Water Network Target and Design : Minimum Water Network Target and Design The Cost effective minimum water network is a holistic framework/guide for water conservation that helps in determining the minimum amount of freshwater and wastewater target for an industrial or urban system based on the water management hierarchy. i.e. it considers all conceivable methods to save water. The technique ensure that the designer desired payback period is satisfied using Systematic Hierarchical Approach for Resilient Process screening (SHARPS)technique.
Another established technique for maximum water recovery is the water pinch analysis technique. However, this technique only focuses on maximizing freshwater and wastewater reduction via reuse and regeneration.