.NET Framework

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.NET Framework

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Introduction to .NET :

Introduction to .NET Sai Bala subrahamanyam 1 Sai Bala subrahamanyam

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ERP & Billing Customer Service Sales Users Any device, Any place, Any time XML Web Services Integrate business applications and processes Back Office Heterogeneous application and server infrastructure Scheduling Authentication Notification . NET Enterprise Vision Sai Bala subrahamanyam 2

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Types of Application Architectures The functions performed by an application can be divided into three categories: User services provides interactive user interface. Therefore, it is also called presentation layer. Business services ensures that the back-end does not receive incorrect data. Data services comprises data and the functions for manipulating the data. Each category is implemented as a layer in an application. These three layers form the base of the models or architectures used in application development. Applications may vary from single-tier desktop applications to multi-tier applications. Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 3

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Single-Tier Architecture In single-tier architecture, a single executable file handles all functions relating to the user, business, and data service layers. Single-tier applications are also called monolithic applications. Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 4

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Two-Tier Architecture The two-tier architecture divides an application into the following two components: Client: Implements the user interface Server: Stores data In the two-tier architecture, the business services layer may be implemented in one of the following ways: By using fat client By using fat server By dividing the business services between the user services and the data services Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 5

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Three-Tier Architecture In three-tier architecture, all the three service layers reside separately, either on the same machine or on different machines. The user interface interacts with the business logic. The business logic validates the data sent by the interfaces and forwards it to the database if it conforms to the requirements. The front-end only interacts with business logic, which, in turn, interacts with the database. Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 6

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N-Tier Architecture An n-tier application architecture is not restricted to a specific number of layers. It has multiple servers handling business services. The advantages of n-tier architecture are: Extensibility Resilience to change Maintainability Scalability These applications serve organization-specific requirements. Therefore, most modern enterprise applications are based on the n-tier application architecture. Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 7

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.Net Initiative The .NET initiative offers a complete suite for developing and deploying applications. This suite consists of .NET products: Microsoft has introduced Visual Studio .NET IDE, which is a tool for developing .NET applications. NET programming languages: Visual Basic, Visual C#, and Visual C++. All .NET products use eXtensible Markup Language (XML) for describing and exchanging data between applications. .NET services: Web services: A Web service is an application or business logic that is accessible through standard Internet protocols such as HTTP and SOAP. The .NET Framework: It is a foundation for developing, designing and deploying applications. It exists as a layer between .NET applications and the underlying operating system. Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 8

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Common Language Runtime Garbage Collection Language Integration Multiple Versioning Support (no more DLL hell!) Integrated Security Framework Class Library Provides the core functionality: ASP.NET, Web Services, ADO.NET, Windows Forms, IO, XML, etc. Core Of .NET Framework: CLR & FCL Sai Bala subrahamanyam 9

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CLR manages code execution at runtime Memory management, thread management, etc. Operating System Common Language Runtime Common Language Runtime Sai Bala subrahamanyam 10

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Object-Oriented collection of reusable types Collections, I/O, Strings, … Operating System Common Language Runtime .NET Framework (Base Class Library) Base Class Library Sai Bala subrahamanyam 11

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Access relational databases Disconnected data model Work with XML Operating System Common Language Runtime . NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML Data Access Layer Sai Bala subrahamanyam 12

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Create application’s front-end – Web-based user interface, Windows GUI, Web services, … Operating System Common Language Runtime .NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms ASP.NET &cam Windows Form Sai Bala subrahamanyam 13

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Use your favorite language Operating System Common Language Runtime .NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms C++ C# VB.NET Perl J# … Programming Languages Sai Bala subrahamanyam 14

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Operating System Common Language Runtime . NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms Common Language Specification C++ C# VB Perl J# … Common Language specification Sai Bala subrahamanyam 15

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Operating System Common Language Runtime .NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms Common Language Specification C++ C# VB Perl J# … Visual Studio .NET Visual Studio .NET Sai Bala subrahamanyam 16

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Operating System Common Language Runtime . NET Framework (Base Class Library) ADO .NET and XML ASP .NET Web Forms Web Services Mobile Internet Toolkit Windows Forms Common Language Specification C++ C# VB Perl J# … Visual Studio .NET XML-Based Data Access Standard Compliance Sai Bala subrahamanyam 17

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.NET Framework Class Library Support Thread Support COM Marshaler Type Checker Exception Manager MSIL to Native Compilers Code Manager Garbage Collection Security Engine Debugger Class Loader Common Language Runtime Sai Bala subrahamanyam 18

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Common Language Runtime A common runtime for all .NET Languages Common Type System Intermediate Language (IL) to native code compilers Common Metadata Sai Bala subrahamanyam 19

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Manages running code – like a virtual machine Threading Memory allocation and garbage collection No interpreter: JIT-compiler produces native code during the program installation or at run time. Code execution and security. Enables cross-language interoperability Common Language Specification describes interoperability requirements. Sai Bala subrahamanyam 20

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Common Language Runtime(CLR) The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the environment where all programs in .NET run. The CLR can host a variety of languages and offer a common set of tools across languages, ensuring interoperability between the codes. Presently, the premier languages for the CLR are Visual Basic, C# (C Sharp), and C++. The applications created in the languages that target the CLR undergo Managed Code Execution Process. VB .NET Visual C# VB .NET Compiler VC# Compiler Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) Common Language Runtime (CLR) Native Code Just in Time (JIT) Compilers Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 21

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Common Language Runtime(CLR) (Contd.) Compilation and Execution of a .NET Application Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 22

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Common Language Runtime(CLR) (Contd.) Features Provided by the CLR: Automatic memory management Standard type system Language interoperability Platform independence Security management Type safety Introducing VB.Net Sai Bala subrahamanyam 23

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VB Source code Compiler C++ C# Compiler Compiler Assembly IL Code Assembly IL Code Assembly IL Code Operating System Services Common Language Runtime JIT Compiler Native Code Managed Code Unmanaged Component CLR: Execution Model Sai Bala subrahamanyam 24

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Code that targets the CLR is referred to as managed code. All managed code has the features of the CLR Object-oriented Type-safe Cross-language integration Cross language exception handling Multiple version support Managed Code is represented in special Intermediate Language (IL) Managed Code Sai Bala subrahamanyam 25

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The CLR manages memory for managed code All allocations of objects and buffers made from a Managed Heap. Unused objects and buffers are cleaned up automatically through Garbage Collection. Some of the worst bugs in software development are not possible with managed code Leaked memory or objects. References to freed or non-existent objects. Reading of uninitialized variables. Pointerless Environment Automatic Memory Management Sai Bala subrahamanyam 26

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IL (MSIL or CIL) – Intermediate Language It is low-level (machine) language, like Assembler, but is Object-oriented. CTS is a rich type system built into the CLR Implements various types ( int , float, string, …) And operations on those types. CLS is a set of specifications that all languages and libraries need to follow This will ensure interoperability between languages. Multiple Language Support Sai Bala subrahamanyam 27

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.NET languages are compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL). IL is also known as MSIL or CIL. CLR compiles IL in just-in-time (JIT) manner – each function is compiled just before execution. The JIT code stays in memory for subsequent calls. Recompilations of assemblies are also possible. Intermediate Language Sai Bala subrahamanyam 28

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29 Compilation C++, C#, VB or any .NET language Source Code csc.exe or vbc.exe Compiler Assembly DLL or EXE .NET Assembly Sai Bala subrahamanyam

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.method private hidebysig static void Main() cil managed { .entrypoint // Code size 11 (0xb) .maxstack 8 IL_0000: ldstr "Hello, world!" IL_0005: call void [mscorlib]System.Console::WriteLine(string) IL_000a: ret } // end of method HelloWorld::Main Example Of MSIL Sai Bala subrahamanyam 30

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.NET Framework is a code execution platform – the environment which .NET programs run .NET Framework consists of two primary parts: Common Language Runtime and .NET Class Libraries The CLS (Common Language Specification) allows different languages to interact seamlessly. The CTS (Common Type System) allows all languages to share base data types. .NET languages are compiled to MSIL by their respective compilers MSIL code is compiled to machine code by the JIT compiler Summary Sai Bala subrahamanyam 31

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All .NET languages have equal access to the FCL (Framework Class Library) which is a rich set of classes for developing software Base Class Library is set of basic classes: Collections, I/O, Networking, Security, etc. ADO.NET provides .NET applications with access to relational databases .NET has great XML support including: DOM, XSLT, XPath , and XSchema Summary Sai Bala subrahamanyam 32

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Windows Forms provides GUI interface for the .NET applications ASP.NET allows creating web interface to .NET applications Web Services expose functionality from web sites and make it remotely accessible through standard XML-based protocols Visual Studio .NET is powerful development IDE for all .NET languages and technologies Summary Sai Bala subrahamanyam 33

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Thank You!   End of presentation Sai Bala subrahamanyam 34