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Premium member Presentation Transcript Chapter 10: Managing the Distributed File System, Disk Quotas, and Software Installation : Chapter 10: Managing the Distributed File System, Disk Quotas, and Software Installation A.Sai Bala Subrahmanyam, MCA,MCPIT,MCSA,MCPSLearning Objectives: Learning Objectives Design, configure, and manage the Distributed File System on a network Publish a shared folder and a Distributed File System shared folder in the Active Directory Enable and configure disk quotasLearning Objectives (continued): Learning Objectives (continued) Install and manage application software Edit and configure the Windows 2000 Server Registry Set up and use the Microsoft License ManagerDistributed File System: Distributed File System Distributed File System (Dfs): A system that enables folders shared from multiple computers to appear as though they exist in one centralized hierarchy of folders instead of on many different computersDfs Links in a Dfs Root: Dfs Links in a Dfs Root Figure 10-1 Dfs links in the Dfs root containerAdvantages of DFS: Advantages of DFS Shared folders can be set up so that they appear in one hierarchy of folders NTFS access permissions can be used Offers fault tolerance Enables load balancing for better server performance Web-based access is improved Vital shared folders on multiple computers can be backed up from one set of master foldersPlanning Tip: Planning Tip Implement Dfs on an NTFS volume to take advantage of access permissions, special permissions, and auditingTroubleshooting Tip: Troubleshooting Tip If you are running in mixed mode and Dfs does not work on the Windows NT Server 4.0 servers, install the latest service pack for Windows NT Server 4.0 (Dfs is implemented in service pack 3)Dfs Models: Dfs Models There are two Dfs models: Standalone: does not take advantage of the Active Directory and provides a flat level share (no hierarchies under the root) Domain-based: uses the Active Directory and offers a deep hierarchical folder arrangementDomain-Based Topology: Domain-Based Topology Dfs root: The main Active Directory container that holds Dfs links to shared folders in a domain Dfs link: A path that is established between a shared folder in a domain and a Dfs root Replica set: A grouping of shared folders in a Dfs root that are replicated or copied to all servers that participate in Dfs replicationPlanning a Dfs Implementation: Planning a Dfs Implementation Determine whether to use a standalone or domain-based model Place Dfs shared folders on NTFS formatted disks, if possible Use multiple Dfs roots to reflect particular arrangements of information and security needsPlanning a Dfs Implementation(continued): Planning a Dfs Implementation(continued) Set up a short cache timeout on folders in which the contents change often Develop a synchronization schedule that helps minimize network traffic Regularly review and purge Dfs folders that are no longer neededConfiguring Dfs: Configuring Dfs Configure Dfs using the Distributed file System management tool Start the tool by: Accessing it from the Administrative Tools menu Or access it as an MMC snap-inConfiguring the Standalone Dfs Model: Configuring the Standalone Dfs Model Figure 10-2 Specifying the standalone modelAssociating the Domain with Dfs: Associating the Domain with Dfs Figure 10-5 Entering the domain nameCreating a Dfs Root Share : Creating a Dfs Root Share Figure 10-3 Creating a new Dfs shareTroubleshooting Tip: Troubleshooting Tip A host server can host only one DFS root (either standalone or domain based) If you attempt to create an additional standalone or domain based root on a server, you will see the error message, “This server already hosts a Dfs root” Using the MMC to Access a New Root: Using the MMC to Access a New Root Figure 10-4 Viewing a new Dfs shared folder in the MMC consoleTasks in Managing a Domain-Based Dfs Root System: Tasks in Managing a Domain-Based Dfs Root System Deleting a Dfs root Adding and removing a Dfs link Adding root and link replica sets Configuring security Checking the status of a root or linkDeleting a Dfs Root: Deleting a Dfs Root The steps to delete a Dfs root are: Warn users in advance Open the Distributed File System management tool Right-click the root in the tree Click Delete Dfs Root Click YesAdding a Dfs Link: Adding a Dfs Link The steps to add a Dfs link are: Open the Distributed File System management tool Right-click the root Click New Dfs Link Enter the name for the link Enter the shared folder to use for the link Set the cache timeout Click OkSetting Up a Link: Setting Up a Link Figure 10-6 Creating a Dfs linkDFS Replicas: DFS Replicas Replicas allow for the distributed file system to be fault tolerant and load balanced Create a root replica to provide a backup of the master root system and to balance the load when access to the master root becomes heavy Load balancing via root replicas improves network performance and user productivity, because users don’t have to wait for the resources that they need Designated links can be replicated as well as roots for fault tolerance and load balancingConfiguring a Replica: Configuring a Replica To configure a replica using the DFS management tool: Right-click the Dfs link to replicate and click New Enter the computer name and shared folder on the computer to house the replica Select the replication method, Manual or Automatic, and click OK. Automatic replication is handled by the File Replication service. For automatic replication, set the the replication policy and click OKConfiguring the Type of Replication: Configuring the Type of Replication Figure 10-7 Adding a new replica for a Dfs linkConfiguring the Replication Policy: Configuring the Replication Policy Figure 10-8 Configuring replication policyConfiguring the File Replication Service: Configuring the File Replication Service Make sure that the File Replication Service is started and configured to start automatically Use the Computer Management tool or the Services tool on the Administrative Tools menu to configure servicesDfs Root Permissions: Dfs Root Permissions Full Control: Can change permissions, take ownership, create, delete, modify and manage Dfs shared files and folders – plus delete trees and subtrees in the folder structure Read: Can list and read the contents of shared files and folders Write: Can modify the contents of shared files and foldersTroubleshooting a Problem with a Root or Link: Troubleshooting a Problem with a Root or Link The most common problem is that a root, link, or replica is not accessible, such as when the computer on which it resides is down Use the Check Status option to locate a problem and look for a red circle with a white “x” that indicates a particular link or replica is downChecking the Status of Dfs: Checking the Status of Dfs Figure 10-9 Checking the status of replicas in a linkSteps for Publishing a Folder: Steps for Publishing a Folder To publish a folder: Open the Active Directory Users and Computers tool Right-click the domain Point to New and click Shared Folder Enter the name for the published folder Enter the path to the shared folder or Dfs root and click OKPublishing a Folder: Publishing a Folder Figure 10-10 Publishing a shared folderDisk Quotas: Disk Quotas Use the Windows 2000 disk quota capability to: Prevent users from filling the disk capacity Encourage users to play their part in managing disk space by cleaning up old or unused files Track disk capacity needs for future planning Provide server administrators information about when users are nearing or have reached their disk quotasPlanning Tip: Planning Tip If possible, establish quotas before making shared folders available to users, because it is politically harder to impose the limits after users are accustomed to having noneDisk Quota Parameters: Disk Quota Parameters To configure disk quotas, right click a disk volume, select properties, and click Quota Enable quota management: Sets up quota management and starts tracking disk usage Deny disk space to users exceeding quota limits: Users can’t write new information after reaching their quota level Do not limit disk usage: Tracks disk usage without imposing quotas Limit disk space to: Sets the default amount of disk space for all usersDisk Quota Parameters (continued): Disk Quota Parameters (continued) Set warning level to: Sets the default disk space that users can occupy that will trigger a warning message Log event when a user exceeds their quota limit: An event is entered in the System log when a user reaches his or her quota Log event when the user exceeds the warning level: An event is entered in the System log when a user receives a warning that he or she is approaching the quotaConfiguring a Default Disk Quota: Configuring a Default Disk Quota Figure 10-11 Setting default disk quotasDisk Quotas for Specific Users: Disk Quotas for Specific Users Besides setting default disk quotas for all users, you can set individual quotas for certain users Click the Quota Entries button to view current usage by each user and set individual quotasSetting a Quota for a User: Setting a Quota for a User Figure 10-12 Setting a disk quota on a designated user accountDeleting a Disk Quota: Deleting a Disk Quota Figure 10-13 Deleting a disk quota on an accountRunning Software Applications: Running Software Applications Software applications run in the user mode User mode: A special operating mode in Windows 2000 used for running programs in a memory area kept separate from that used by the kernel and in which the program cannot directly access the kernel or operating system services except through an APIWindows 2000 Server Registry: Windows 2000 Server Registry Sample elements in the Registry Information about all hardware components Information about Windows 2000 services Data about user profiles and group policies Data on the last current and last known setup used to boot the computer Configuration information for all software Software licensing information Control Panel parameter configurationsElements of the Registry: Elements of the Registry Key: A category of information contained in the Windows 2000 Registry, such as hardware or software Subkey: A key within a Registry key, similar to a subfolder under a folder Value: A data parameter in the Registry stored as a value in decimal, binary, or text format To view the information in the registry, run regedit.exe or regedt32.exeRoot Key Defined: Root Key Defined Root key: Also called a subtree, the highest category of data contained in the Registry. There are five root keys.Windows 2000 Server Root Keys: Windows 2000 Server Root Keys HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE: Contains in particular information about hardware components and drivers, software installed, system information, and security HKEY_CURRENT_USER: Contains information about the user profile for the account currently logged onto the consoleWindows 2000 Server Root Keys (continued): Windows 2000 Server Root Keys (continued) HKEY_USERS: Contains all of the user profiles HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT: Contains data to associate file extensions with programs HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG: Contains information about the current hardware profileExample Contents of a Root Key: Example Contents of a Root Key Figure 10-16 The HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE root keyEditing the Registry: Editing the Registry Edit the Registry using one of two editors: Regedt32: a more modern 32-bit editor Regedit: the original editor preferred by some administratorsEditing the HKEY_CURRENT_USER key : Editing the HKEY_CURRENT_USER key Figure 10-17 Changing Registry data for file associationsTroubleshooting Tip: Troubleshooting Tip Only make changes to the Registry when you are absolutely certain about what you are doing, or you may end up with a system the will not bootChapter Summary: Chapter Summary The Distributed File System (Dfs) is designed to make it easier for users to access multiple shared folders on multiple servers Dfs can be implemented using the standalone or domain-based model Dfs not only can make users more productive, but it offers fault tolerance and load balancingChapter Summary: Chapter Summary Disk quotas make it possible to: Obtain statistics for disk capacity planning Place limits on the amount of disk space that all users or individual users occupy Use the Add/Remove Programs tool to install, upgrade, and remove application softwareChapter Summary: Chapter Summary The Windows 2000 Server Registry houses vital system, hardware, software, user, and security information Plan to use the Microsoft License Manager to track current licenses, install new licenses, and determine when more licenses are needed You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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