Total quality management : www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Total quality management R.S.MOHAN,BE(Mech),MBA
Asst. Prof. - MBA
Park College of Engineering & Technology
Kaniyur, Coimbatore. S.BALACHANDRAN.,MBA., M.SC(APPLD.PSYCHOLOGY)
Park College of Engineering & Technology
Kaniyur, Coimbatore. introduction : introduction Why TQM?
It has become a question of survival in the intense competitive environment.
Increasing customer consciousness all over the world.
Need for earning profit instead of making profit.
Crucial role played by organizational issues, such as leadership, human resource, revolution in IT, etc. ,in quality management. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com DEFINITION : DEFINITION Total – Made up of the whole.
Quality – Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
Management – Act, art,or manner of handling, controlling,directing,etc.,
Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com CONT… : CONT… “TQM is the management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society” www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 5: TQM
Philosophical element Generic tools Tools of the department
Customer-driven Quality. i).SPC tools i).SQC methods
Leadership. a).Process flow charts a).Sampling plans
Continous improvement. b).Check sheets b).Process capability
Employee participation . c).Pareto analysis & c).Taguchi methods
Quick response. Histogram. ii).Benchmarking
Design quality d).Cause & Effect iii).Total preventive maintainence
and prevention. Diagrams.
Management by fact. e).Run charts.
Parnership development. f).Scatter diagrams.
ii).Quality function deployment
iii).New seven management tools
b). Relationship diagram
g)..Matrix data analysis diagram
iv).Failure mode and effect analysis Managing the entire organization so that it excels in all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com SEVEN TOOLS OF QUALITY : SEVEN TOOLS OF QUALITY Prof.Ishikawa proposed seven elemental(Q-7)tools based on statistical techniques.
The seven basic tools are used to facilitate successful accomplishment of quality improvement objectives.
Seven tools of Quality are:
Cause and Effect diagrams.
Control charts. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 1).CHECK SHEET(DATA COLLECTION SHEET ) : 1).CHECK SHEET(DATA COLLECTION SHEET ) DEFINITION:
A Check sheet,also known as tally sheet,is a form for systematic data gathering and registering to get a clear view of the facts.
It is used to keep track of how often something occurs.
The form of the check sheet is tailored for situation/application. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 8: A checklist may be constructed using the following steps:
Formulate the objective for collecting data.
Decide which data is necessary.
Determine who and how data will be analysed.
Draw a format to record data.
Collect and record data problem-wise by putting tally lines.
Start counting by tallying on the list; |,||,|||, |||| and ||||represent the numbers 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively.
Mark on the list the total number of facts,which were noticed. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com TYPES : TYPES Process ditribution check sheet.
Defective item check sheet.
Defect location check sheet.
Defect factor check sheet. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 2).HISTOGRAM : 2).HISTOGRAM A Histogram is a bar chart/diagram showing a distribution of variable quantities or characteristics.
It is a graphical display of the frequency distribution of the numerical data.
The data are displayed as a series of rectangles of equal width and varying heights. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com APPLICATION : APPLICATION A Histogram is used to show clearly where the most frquently occuring values are located and the data is distributed.
It enables the analyst to quickly visualize the features of a complete set of data.
It is also a tool for determining the maximum process results. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com STEPS TO CONSTRUCT A HISTOGRAM : STEPS TO CONSTRUCT A HISTOGRAM After the data collection,count the number of data values collected.
Determine the range of data.
Range = Highest value - Lowest value.
Divide the data values in groups or classes and count the number of values in each class.
Width of the class = Range/Number of classes selected.
Draw a frequncy table for all values.
Construct a histogram based on the frequency table.For that,mark the class limits on the horizontal axis and the frequency on the vertical axis.
Finally write the title and number of values on the diagram. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com TYPES : TYPES 1).Bell shaped Histogram www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 15: 2).Double-peaked Histogram www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Other types are : Other types are 3).Plateau Histogram
5).Isolated peak Histogram
6).Edged peak Histogram
8).Truncated Histogram www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 3).CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM : 3).CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM The Cause and effect(CE) diagram is a graphical-tabular chart to list and analyse the potential causes of a given problem.
The cause and effect diagram is also called the fishbone diagram because of its appearance and the Ishikawa diagram after the man who developed it in 1943. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com BASIC STRUCTURE : BASIC STRUCTURE PEOPLE MATERIAL WORK METHODS ENVIRONMENT EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTIC www.resourceforu.blogspot.com APPLICATION : APPLICATION The CE diagram has unlimited application in research,manufacturing ,marketing,office operations,services,and so forth.
The CE diagrams are used:
a).To analyse cause and effect relationships.
b).To facilitate the search for the solutions of related problems.
c).To standardize existing and proposed operations.
d).To educate and train personnel in decision-making and corrective actions activity. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com STEPS : STEPS The cause and effect diagram may be constructed using the following steps:
Define the effect clearly and concisely.
Mark the short description of the effect in a box.Then draw a line from this box towards left.
List down all the possible minor and major causes through a brainstorming session.
Mark the major causes on the branches and the minor causes on the sub-branches of the CE diagrams.
Look for the possible solutions for these causes.
Introduce the changes. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 3).PARETO DIAGRAM : 3).PARETO DIAGRAM A Pareto diagram is a diagnostic tool commoly used for separating the vital few causes that account for a dominant share of quality loss.
It is also called as 80/20 rule and as ABC analysis.It means only 20% of problems(defects) account for 80% of the effects. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com APPLICATION : APPLICATION It can be used in a wide range of situations where one need to prioritise problems based on its relative importance.
It can be used as a risk assessment technique from activity level to system level. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com STEPS : STEPS Obtain data,using a check sheet or brainstorm.
Arrange the data in descending order starting from the largest category to smallest.
Calculate the total and percentage of the totla that each category represents.
Compute the cumulative percentages.
Draw a bar chart with two vertical axes.
Draw a bar above each item whose height represents the number for that cause.
Plot cumulative percentage line. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 24: h).Now draw a horizontal line from 80%(on the right till the point of intersection with the cumulativertical axis) to the left ve, and then draw a vertical line from this intersection downwards till the horizontal axis.Left from this intersection point are the 20% of causes(the most essential bottlenecks) which causes 80% of the damages. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 4).STRATIFICATION ANALYSIS : 4).STRATIFICATION ANALYSIS Stratification is a method of analysis of data by grouping it in different ways.
Literally,stratification means segregating a group of measurements,observations or any other data into several sub-groups on the basis of certain characteristics.These stratified data are used for identifying the influencing factors.
It is a simple,very effective QC tool for improving the quality. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 26: Collect data about any problem in product/defects,etc., Consider potentially significant way of grouping data on basis of factors experienced Repeat through graphic manner reflecting stratification Analyse results and try new grouping,if necessar,to get insight into the problem and make evident the correlation www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 5).SCATTER DIAGRAM : 5).SCATTER DIAGRAM The Scatter diagram is a simple graphical device to depict the relationship between two variables.
A scatter diagram is composed of a horizontal axis containing the measured values of one variable(independent,ie.,cause) and a vertical axis,representing the measurements of the variable(dependent,ie.,effect) .
This diagram displays athe paired data as a cloud of points.The density and direction of the cloud indicate how the two variables influence each other. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com TYPES : TYPES Positive correlation
Negative correlation may exist
Correlation by strtification
Curvilinear relationship www.resourceforu.blogspot.com CONSTRUCTION : CONSTRUCTION Select variables which are related to each other Collect data Create scatter diagram
X axis – cause or independent variable
Y axis – effect or dependent variable Examine the shape of cloud of points Determine the type and strength of the mutual relationships www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 30: www.resourceforu.blogspot.com 6).CONTROL CHART : 6).CONTROL CHART A Control chart,invented by Walter A.Shewart,is the most widely used tool in Statistical Process Control(SPC).
A Control chart is graph that displays data taken over time and the variations of this data.
A Histogram gives a static picture of process variability,whereas a control chart illustrates the dynamic performance of the process.
It is based on a series of random samples taken at regular intervals. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 32: The chart consists of three horizontal lines that remain constant over time : a center,a lower control limit(LCL),and on upper control limit(UCL).The center is usually set at the normal design value.The UCL and LCL are generally set at +-3 tandard deviation of the sample means.
If a sample drawn from the process lies inside these(UCL and LCL)limits,it means the process is in control.On the other hand,if the sample lies outside these limits,then the process is said to be out of control.so appropriate corrective action is necessary to eliminate the condition. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com TYPES : TYPES Control chart for variables – for measurable data such as time,th,temperature,weight,pressure,etc.,
Control chart for characteristics – for quantifiable data such as number of defect,typing errors in a report,etc., www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 34: UCL LCL Y X www.resourceforu.blogspot.com APPLICATION : APPLICATION The purpose of a control chart is to identify when the process has gone out of statistical control,thus signaling the need for some corrective action to be taken. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com ISO 9000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS : ISO 9000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS www.resourceforu.blogspot.com DEFINITION : DEFINITION International organisation for Standardisation (ISO) defined the term quality system as follows :
“ The quality system are the organisational structures,responsibilities,procedures,processes and resources for implementing quality management ”. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) was established in 1946 in Geneva,Switzerland,where it is still based.
ISO is an association of National StandardsBodies of more than 150 countries.
ISO is a specialised agency for standardisation.The primary objective of ISO is coordination and unification of international standards. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 39: ISO employs a system of technical committees,sub-committees and working groups to develop international standards.Besides the national standard bodies ISO permits other international organisation that develop standards to participate in its work,by accepting them as Liasion member.
ISO works in accordance with an agreed set of rules of procedures,the ISO directves,which also include requirements on the presentation of standards.
The Bureau of Indian Standards(BIS) is the national standards body of india represented on ISO. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com ISO 9000 AND ISO 14000 : ISO 9000 AND ISO 14000 The vast majority of ISO standards are highly specific to a particular product,material,or process.However,both ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 are known as generic management standards.
ISO 9000 has become an international reference for quality management requirements in business – to – business dealings, and ISO 14000 is for envionmental management requirements. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com ISO 9000 QUALITY SYSTEM : ISO 9000 QUALITY SYSTEM ISO 9000 standards are a collection of formal International Standards,technical reports,handbooks and web based documents on quality management and quality assurance.
ISO 9000 Series Standards :
ISO 9000 series of standards are generic rather than industry specific.
It can be applied to any organisation,large or small. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com CLASSIFICATION OF ISO 9000 QUALITY SYSTEM STANDARDS : CLASSIFICATION OF ISO 9000 QUALITY SYSTEM STANDARDS www.resourceforu.blogspot.com ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS The elements of ISO 9000 must be understood for their successful implementation in an organisation.
The following are the twenty elements of a quality system :
5).Document Control www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 44: 6).Purchasing
7).Purchaser Supplied Product(Control of Customer-Supplied Products)
8).Product Identification and traceability
10).Inspection and Testing
11).Inspection,Measuring and Equipment(IMTE)
12).Inspection and Test Status
13).Control of Non-conforming products
14).Corrective and Preventive action www.resourceforu.blogspot.com Slide 45: 15).Handling,Storage,Packaging,Preservation and Delivery
16).Control of Quality Records.
17).Internal Quality Audit
20).statistical Techniques. www.resourceforu.blogspot.com THANK YOU : THANK YOU www.resourceforu.blogspot.com