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Introduction to ASP.NET and Web Forms:

Introduction to ASP.NET and Web Forms Arijit Sengupta S511 Module 5

S511 Module Structure:

.Net framework Prelims Web Services S511 Module Structure M1 Basics M2 XML M3 XML-2 M4 XSLT M5 .Net M6 ADO .Net M7 Query M8 XML WS XML Database Services Mid-term Data management (core) Intro. Prog. Object-oriented Programming Project S511 Technologies for E-business

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives What is ASP.NET; why it was developed ASP.NET features Programming Web Forms

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

Background Web Architecture:

Background Web Architecture Web Server PC/Mac/Unix/... + Browser Client Server Request: http://www.digimon.com/default.asp Response: <html>….</html> Network HTTP, TCP/IP

Background Web Development Technologies:

Background Web Development Technologies Client-side technologies HTML, DHTML, JavaScript Server-side technologies ASP (Active Server Pages) ASP.NET is the next generation of ASP

Background What is ASP?:

Background What is ASP? Server-side programming technology Consists of static HTML interspersed with script ASP intrinsic objects (Request, Response, Server, Application, Session) provide services Commonly uses ADO to interact with databases Application and session variables Application and session begin/end events ASP manages threads, database connections, ...

Background What is ASP?:

Background What is ASP? HTTP request (form data, HTTP header data) HTTP response HTML, XML ASP page (static HTML, server-side logic)

Background Demo: HelloWorld.asp:

Background Demo: HelloWorld.asp <html> <head><title>HelloWorld.asp</title></head> <body> <form method=“post"> <input type="submit" id=button1 name=button1 value="Push Me" /> <% if (Request.Form("button1") <> "") then Response.Write("<p>Hello, the time is " & Now()) end if %> </form> </body> </html>

Background ASP Successes:

Background ASP Successes Simple procedural programming model Access to COM components ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) File System Object Custom components Script-based: no compiling, just edit, save & run VBScript, JScript – leverages existing skills Support for multiple scripting languages ASP has been very popular

Background ASP Challenges:

Background ASP Challenges Coding overhead (too much code) Everything requires writing code! Code readability (too complex; code and UI intermingled) Maintaining page state requires more code Reuse is difficult Supporting many types of browsers is difficult Deployment issues (e.g. DLL locking) Session state scalability and availability Limited support for caching, tracing, debugging, etc. Performance and safety limitations of script

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

ASP.NET Overview:

ASP.NET Overview ASP.NET provides services to allow the creation, deployment, and execution of Web Applications and Web Services Like ASP, ASP.NET is a server-side technology Web Applications are built using Web Forms Web Forms are designed to make building web-based applications as easy as building Visual Basic applications

ASP.NET Overview Goals:

ASP.NET Overview Goals Keep the good parts of ASP and improve the rest Simplify: less code, easier to create and maintain Multiple, compiled languages Fast Scalable Manageable Available Customizable and extensible Secure Tool support

ASP.NET Overview Key Features:

ASP.NET Overview Key Features Web Forms Web Services Built on .NET Framework Simple programming model Maintains page state Multibrowser support XCOPY deployment XML configuration Complete object model Session management Caching Debugging Extensibility Separation of code and UI Security ASPX, ASP side by side Simplified form validation Cookieless sessions

ASP.NET Overview Demo: HelloWorld.aspx:

ASP.NET Overview Demo: HelloWorld.aspx <%@ Page Language="VB" %> <html> <head> <script runat="server"> sub B_Click (sender as object, e as System.EventArgs ) Label1.Text = "Hello, the time is " & DateTime.Now end sub </script> </head> <body> <form method="post" runat="server"> <asp:Button onclick="B_Click" Text="Push Me" runat="server" /> <p> <asp:Label id=Label1 runat="server" /> </form> </body> </html>

ASP.NET Overview Architecture:

ASP.NET Overview Architecture ASP.NET is built upon .NET Framework Internet Information Server (IIS)

ASP.NET Overview Architecture:

Common Language Specification Common Language Runtime VB C++ C# ASP.NET: Web Services and Web Forms JScript … Windows Forms Base Classes ADO.NET: Data and XML Visual Studio.NET ASP.NET Overview Architecture

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

Programming Model Controls and Events:

Programming Model Controls and Events Server-side programming model Based on controls and events Just like Visual Basic Not “data in, HTML out” Higher level of abstraction than ASP Requires less code More modular, readable, and maintainable

Programming Model Controls and Events:

Programming Model Controls and Events Button List Text Browser ASP.NET Button code ... List code ... Text code ... Event handlers

Programming Model ASP.NET Object Model:

Programming Model ASP.NET Object Model User code executes on the web server in page or control event handlers Controls are objects, available in server-side code Derived from System.Web.UI.Control The web page is an object too Derived from System.Web.UI.Page which is a descendant of System.Web.UI.Control A page can have methods, properties, etc.

Programming Model Postbacks:

Programming Model Postbacks A postback occurs when a page generates an HTML form whose values are posted back to the same page A common technique for handling form data In ASP and other server-side technologies the state of the page is lost upon postback... Unless you explicitly write code to maintain state This is tedious, bulky and error-prone

Programming Model Postbacks Maintain State:

Programming Model Postbacks Maintain State By default, ASP.NET maintains the state of all server-side controls during a postback Can use method= " post " or method= " get " Server-side control objects are automatically populated during postback No state stored on server Works with all browsers

Programming Model Server-side Controls:

Programming Model Server-side Controls Multiple sources of controls Built-in 3 rd party User-defined Controls range in complexity and power: button, text, drop down, calendar, data grid, ad rotator, validation Can be populated via data binding

Programming Model Automatic Browser Compatibility:

Programming Model Automatic Browser Compatibility Controls can provide automatic browser compatibility Can target UpLevel or DownLevel browsers UpLevel browsers support additional functionality, such as JavaScript and DHTML DownLevel browsers support HTML 3.2

Programming Model Automatic Browser Compatibility:

Programming Model Automatic Browser Compatibility Button code ... Menu code ... Text code ... Event handlers Button Menu Text IE 4 Button Menu Text Netscape Button Menu Text IE 5.5 Button Menu Text IE 6 ASP.NET Button Control Menu Control Text Control ...

Programming Model Code-behind pages:

Programming Model Code-behind pages Two styles of creating ASP.NET pages Controls and code in .aspx file Controls in .aspx file, code in code-behind page Supported in Visual Studio.NET Code-behind pages allow you to separate the user interface design from the code Allows programmers and designers to work independently <%@ Codebehind=“WebForm1.bas” Inherits=WebApplication1.WebForm1” %>

Programming Model Automatic Compilation:

Programming Model Automatic Compilation Just edit the code and hit the page ASP.NET will automatically compile the code into an assembly Compiled code is cached in the CLR Assembly Cache Subsequent page hits use compiled assembly If the text of the page changes then the code is recompiled Works just like ASP: edit, save and run

Programming Model Automatic Compilation:

Programming Model Automatic Compilation

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

Programming Basics Page Syntax:

Programming Basics Page Syntax The most basic page is just static text Any HTML page can be renamed .aspx Pages may contain: Directives: <%@ Page Language=“VB” %> Server controls: <asp:Button runat=“server”> Code blocks: <script runat=“server”>…</script> Data bind expressions: <%# %> Server side comments: <%-- --%> Render code: <%= %> and <% %> Use is discouraged; use <script runat=server> with code in event handlers instead

Programming Basics The Page Directive:

Programming Basics The Page Directive Lets you specify page-specific attributes, e.g. AspCompat : Compatibility with ASP Buffer : Controls page output buffering CodePage : Code page for this .aspx page ContentType : MIME type of the response ErrorPage : URL if unhandled error occurs Inherits : Base class of Page object Language : Programming language Trace : Enables tracing for this page Transaction : COM+ transaction setting Only one page directive per .aspx file

Programming Basics Server Control Syntax:

Programming Basics Server Control Syntax Controls are declared as HTML tags with runat=“server” attribute Tag identifies which type of control to create Control is implemented as an ASP.NET class The id attribute provides programmatic identifier It names the instance available during postback Just like Dynamic HTML <input type=text id=text2 runat=“server” /> <asp:calendar id=myCal runat=“server” />

Programming Basics Server Control Properties:

Programming Basics Server Control Properties Tag attributes map to control properties c1.Text = “Foo” c2.Rows = 5 <asp:button id=“c1" Text="Foo" runat=“server”> <asp:ListBox id=“c2" Rows="5" runat=“server”> Tags and attributes are case-insensitive Control properties can be set programmatically

Programming Basics Maintaining State:

Programming Basics Maintaining State By default. controls maintain their state across multiple postback requests Implemented using a hidden HTML field: __VIEWSTATE Works for controls with input data (e.g. TextBox , CheckBox ), non-input controls (e.g. Label , DataGrid ), and hybrids (e.g. DropDownList , ListBox ) Can be disabled per control or entire page Set EnableViewState=“false” Lets you minimize size of __VIEWSTATE

Programming Basics Maintaining State:

Programming Basics Maintaining State Demo: MaintainingState.asp, MaintainingState.aspx

Programming Basics Server Code Blocks:

Programming Basics Server Code Blocks Server code lives in a script block marked runat=“server” Script blocks can contain Variables, methods, event handlers, properties They become members of a custom Page object <script language="C#" runat=server> <script language="VB" runat=server> <script language="JScript" runat=server>

Programming Basics Page Events:

Programming Basics Page Events Pages are structured using events Enables clean code organization Avoids the “Monster IF” statement Less complex than ASP pages Code can respond to page events e.g. Page_Load , Page_Unload Code can respond to control events Button1_Click Textbox1_Changed

Programming Basics Page Event Lifecycle:

Programming Basics Page Event Lifecycle Page_Load Page_Unload Textbox1_Changed Button1_Click Initialize Restore Control State Save Control State Render 1. Change Events 2. Action Events Page_Init Control Events Load Page Unload Page

Programming Basics Page Loading:

Programming Basics Page Loading Page_Load fires at beginning of request after controls are initialized Input control values already populated protected sub Page_Load(s as Object, e as EventArgs) message.Text = "Howdy, World!" End sub

Programming Basics Page Loading:

Programming Basics Page Loading Page_Load fires on every request Use Page.IsPostBack to execute conditional logic If a Page/Control is maintaining state then need only initialize it when IsPostBack is false protected sub Page_Load(s as Object, e as EventArgs) if (Page.IsPostBack) then else ' Executes only on initial page load Message.Text = "initial value" ' Rest of procedure executes on every request end sub

Programming Basics Server Control Events:

Programming Basics Server Control Events Change Events By default, these execute only on next action event E.g. OnTextChanged , OnCheckedChanged Change events fire in random order Action Events Cause an immediate postback to server E.g. OnClick Works with any browser No client script required, no applets, no ActiveX ® Controls!

Programming Basics Wiring Up Control Events:

Programming Basics Wiring Up Control Events Control event handlers are identified on the tag Event handler code protected sub btn1_Click(s as Object, e as EventArgs) Message.Text = “Button1 clicked” end sub <asp:button onclick="btn1_click“ runat=server> <asp:textbox onchanged="text1_changed“ runat=server>

Programming Basics Event Arguments:

Programming Basics Event Arguments Events pass two arguments: The sender, declared as type object Usually the object representing the control that generated the event Allows you to use the same event handler for multiple controls Arguments, declared as type EventArgs Provides additional data specific to the event EventArgs itself contains no data; a class derived from EventArgs will be passed

Programming Basics Page Unloading:

Programming Basics Page Unloading Page_Unload fires after the page is rendered Don’t try to add to output Useful for logging and clean up protected sub Page_Unload(s as Object, e as EventArgs) MyApp.LogPageComplete() end sub

Programming Basics Import Directive:

Programming Basics Import Directive Adds code namespace reference to page Avoids having to fully qualify .NET types and class names Equivalent to the VB imports directive <%@ Import Namespace="System.Data" %> <%@ Import Namespace="System.Net" %> <%@ Import Namespace="System.IO" %>

Programming Basics Page Class:

Programming Basics Page Class The Page object is always available when handling server-side events Provides a large set of useful properties and methods, including: Application , Cache , Controls , EnableViewState , EnableViewStateMac , ErrorPage , IsPostBack , IsValid , Request , Response , Server , Se s sion, Trace , User , Validators DataBind() , LoadControl() , MapPath() , Validate()

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

Server Controls:

Server Controls ASP.NET ships with ~50 built-in controls Organized into logical families HTML controls Controls / properties map 1:1 with HTML Web controls Richer functionality More consistent object model

Server Controls HTML Controls:

Server Controls HTML Controls Work well with existing HTML designers Properties map 1:1 with HTML table.bgcolor ="red" Can specify client-side event handlers Good when quickly converting existing pages Derived from System.Web.UI.HtmlControls.HtmlControl Supported controls have custom class, others derive from HtmlGenericControl

Server Controls HTML Controls:

Server Controls HTML Controls Supported controls <a> <img> <form> <table> <tr> <td> <th> <select> <textarea> <button> <input type=text> <input type=file> <input type=submit> <input type=button> <input type=reset> <input type=hidden>

Server Controls HTML Controls:

Server Controls HTML Controls Demo 1: HTMLControls1.aspx Basic page lifecycle with HTML Controls Demo 2: HTMLControls2.aspx More HTML Controls

Server Controls HTML Controls:

Server Controls HTML Controls Can use controls two ways: Handle everything in action events (e.g. button click) Event code will read the values of other controls (e.g. text, check boxes, radio buttons, select lists) Handle change events as well as action events

Server Controls Web Controls:

Server Controls Web Controls Consistent object model Label1.BackColor = Color.Red Table.BackColor = Color.Blue Richer functionality E.g. AutoPostBack , additional methods Automatic uplevel/downlevel support E.g. validation controls Strongly-typed; no generic control Enables better compiler type checking

Server Controls Web Controls:

Server Controls Web Controls Web controls appear in HTML markup as namespaced tags Web controls have an asp: prefix <asp:button onclick="button1_click“ runat=server> <asp:textbox onchanged="text1_changed“ runat=server> Defined in the System.Web.UI.WebControls namespace This namespace is automatically mapped to the asp: prefix

Server Controls Web Controls:

Server Controls Web Controls Web Controls provide extensive properties to control display and format, e.g. Font BackColor , ForeColor BorderColor , BorderStyle , BorderWidth Style , CssClass Height , Width Visible , Enabled

Server Controls Web Controls:

Server Controls Web Controls Four types of Web Controls Intrinsic controls List controls Rich controls Validation controls

Server Controls Intrinisic Controls:

Server Controls Intrinisic Controls Correspond to HTML controls Supported controls <asp:button> <asp:imagebutton> <asp:linkbutton> <asp:hyperlink> <asp:textbox> <asp:checkbox> <asp:radiobutton> <asp:image> <asp:label> <asp:panel> <asp:table>

Server Controls Intrinisic Controls:

Server Controls Intrinisic Controls TextBox , ListControl , CheckBox and their subclasses don’t automatically do a postback when their controls are changed Specify AutoPostBack=true to make change events cause a postback

Server Controls List Controls:

Server Controls List Controls Controls that handle repetition Supported controls <asp:dropdownlist> <asp:listbox> <asp:radiobuttonlist> <asp:checkboxlist> <asp:repeater> <asp:datalist> <asp:datagrid>

Server Controls List Controls:

Server Controls List Controls Repeater , DataList and DataGrid controls Powerful, customizable list controls Expose templates for customization Can contain other controls Provide event bubbling through their OnItemCommand event More about these controls and templates later

Server Controls CheckBoxList & RadioButtonList:

Server Controls CheckBoxList & RadioButtonList Provides a collection of check box or radio button controls Can be populated via data binding <asp:CheckBoxList id=Check1 runat="server"> <asp:ListItem>Item 1</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Item 2</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Item 3</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Item 4</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Item 5</asp:ListItem> </asp:CheckBoxList>

Server Controls Intrinisic & Simple List Controls:

Server Controls Intrinisic & Simple List Controls Demo 1: WebControls1.aspx Assorted intrinsic and list controls Demo 2: WebControls2.aspx Same controls with AutoPostBack

Server Controls Rich Controls:

Server Controls Rich Controls Custom controls with rich functionality Supported Controls <asp:calendar> <asp:adrotator> More will be added 3 rd party controls are coming Demo: RichControls1.aspx

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Rich, declarative validation Validation declared separately from input control Extensible validation framework Supports validation on client and server Automatically detects uplevel clients Avoids roundtrips for uplevel clients Server-side validation is always done Prevents users from spoofing Web Forms

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls <asp:RequiredFieldValidator> Ensures that a value is entered <asp:RangeValidator> Checks if value is within minimum and maximum values <asp:CompareValidator> Compares value against constant, another control or data type <asp:RegularExpressionValidator> Tests if value matches a predefined pattern <asp:CustomValidator> Lets you create custom client- or server-side validation function <asp:ValidationSummary> Displays list of validation errors in one place

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Validation controls are derived from System.Web.UI.WebControls.BaseValidator , which is derived from the Label control Validation controls contain text which is displayed only if validation fails Text property is displayed at control location ErrorMessage is displayed in summary

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Validation controls are associated with their target control using the ControlToValidate property Can create multiple validation controls with the same target control <asp:TextBox id=TextBox1 runat=server /> <asp:RequiredFieldValidator id="Req1" ControlToValidate="TextBox1" Text="Required Field" runat=server />

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Page.IsValid indicates if all validation controls on the page succeed void Submit_click(s as object, e as EventArgs) if (Page.IsValid) then Message.Text = "Page is valid!" end if end sub

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Display property controls layout Static : fixed layout, display won’t change if invalid Dynamic : dynamic layout None : no display; can still use ValidationSummary and Page.IsValid Type property specifies expected data type: Currency , Date , Double , Integer , String

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Can force down-level option Only server-side validation <% @ Page Language="c#" ClientTarget="DownLevel" %>

Server Controls Validation Controls:

Server Controls Validation Controls Demo: ValidationControls1.aspx Demonstrates each type of validation control

Agenda:

Agenda Background ASP.NET Overview Programming Model Programming Basics Server Controls Data Binding Conclusion

Data Binding How to Populate Server Controls?:

Data Binding How to Populate Server Controls? Specify the data in the control’s tags Not dynamic: can’t get data from a database Write code that uses the control’s object model This is okay if you need to populate a simple value or list, but quickly gets too complicated for populating sophisticated displays Data binding Create an object that holds the data ( DataSet , Array , string , int , etc.) Associate that object with the control

Data Binding What Is It?:

Data Binding What Is It? Provides a single simple yet powerful way to populate Web Form controls with data Enables clean separation of code from UI Supports binding to any data source Properties, expressions, method calls Collections ( Array , Hashtable , etc.) DataSet , DataTable , DataView , DataReader XML One way snapshot model Requires code to reapply to data model

Data Binding What Is It?:

Data Binding What Is It? Allows you to specify an expression When the DataBind method of the control is called, the expression is evaluated and bound DataBind for a single control (and subcontrols) Page.DataBind binds all controls on a page Works for scalars, e.g. Label control Works for lists, e.g. DropDown control, ListBox control, etc. Enables the use of templates

Data Binding Scalar Expressions:

Data Binding Scalar Expressions Data binding expression: <%# expression %> Expression is evaluated when DataBind() is called <asp:Label id=label1 Text=<%# “The result is “ & (1 + 2) & “, the time is “ & DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString() %> runat="server" /> public sub Page_Load(s as object, e as EventArgs) if (Page.IsPostBack) then else Page.DataBind() end if end sub

Data Binding Scalar Expressions:

Data Binding Scalar Expressions Demo: DataBinding1.aspx Data binding to simple, scalar expressions

Data Binding Simple Lists:

Data Binding Simple Lists Data binding a list creates a user interface element for each item in the list Each item contains text (displayed to user) and an optional value (not displayed) The simple list controls: <asp:ListBox> Single or multiple select <asp:DropDownList> <asp:RadioButtonList> <asp:CheckBoxList>

Data Binding Simple Lists:

Data Binding Simple Lists Steps to data bind a list control Declare the list control Optionally set DataValueField and DataTextField Set its DataSource Call DataBind() method

Data Binding Simple Lists:

Data Binding Simple Lists Demo: DataBinding2.aspx Data binding to simple lists

Resources:

Resources General Sites http://msdn.microsoft.com/net/aspnet/default.asp http://www.asp.net/ http://www.fmexpense.com/quickstart/aspplus/default.htm http://www.asptoday.com/ http://www.aspng.com/aspng/index.aspx http://www.4guysfromrolla.com/ http://www.aspfree.com/ http://www.devx.com/dotnet/ http://www.ibuyspy.com/

Resources:

Resources ASP.NET Overview http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/0900/ASPPlus/ASPPlus.asp Validation http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/techart/aspplusvalid.htm Databinding in 3 parts http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/03/cutting/cutting0103.asp http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/04/cutting/cutting0104.asp http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/05/cutting/cutting0105.asp ASP.NET component model http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/01/02/cutting/cutting0102.asp

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