HYDROCEPHALUS IN CHILDREN

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A POWERPOINT PRESENTATION OF THE AETIOLOGY, EFFECTS AND MANAGEMENT OF HYDROCEPHALUS IN CHILDREN, BY DR. TITIGAH BABATUIAMU ABRAHAM.

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HYDROCEPHALUS IN CHILDREN : 

HYDROCEPHALUS IN CHILDREN BY DR. TITIGAH BABATUIAMU ABRAHAM NEUROSURGICAL UNIT DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY TAMALE TEACHING HOSPITAL

OUTLINE : 

OUTLINE DEFINITION AETIOLOGY PATHOPHYSIOLOGY CLINICAL FEATURES INVESTIGATIONS COMPLICATIONS MANAGEMENT PROGNOSIS

DEFINITION : 

DEFINITION DIVERSE GROUP OF CONDITIONS CHARACTERISED BY EXCESSIVE CSF IN THE BRAIN. THUS: 1. IMPAIRED FLOW 2. DECREASED REABSORBTION 3. INCREASED PRODUCTION

FLOW OF CSF : 

FLOW OF CSF

AETIOLOGY : 

AETIOLOGY COMMUNICATING (non obstructive) 1. AQUEDUCTAL STENOSIS: genetic(sex linked recessive), neurofibromatosis, TORCHES, Mumps 2. AQUEDUCTAL GLIOSIS: meningitis, intraventicular hemorrhage 3. AQUEDUCTAL COMPRESSION: malformations of the great vein of Galen 4. CHIARI MALFORMATIONS: type 2 5. DANDY WALKER 6. POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS

AETIOLOGY : 

AETIOLOGY NON COMMUNICATING( obstructive) 1. MENINGITIS WITH THICK PURULENT EXUDATES- S. Pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2. SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE 3. LEUKEMIC INFILTRATES

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ACCUMULATION OF FLUID LEADS TO INCREASED PRESSURE IN THE PROXIMAL PART OF PATHWAY AND PROGESSIVE DILATATION. PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE SURROUNDING NERVOUS PATHWAYS AND DELICATE PORTIONS OF BRAIN: PYRAMIDAL TRACTS, CORTEX, TECTUM

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY : 

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

CLINICAL FEATURES : 

CLINICAL FEATURES SYMPTOMS: ANTENATAL, LABOUR, DELIVERY IRRITABILITY BIG HEAD POOR FEED LETHARGY VOMITING IN OLDER PATIENTS: HEADACHE CHANGES IN PERSONALITY ACADEMIC DETERIORATION

CLINICAL FEATURES : 

CLINICAL FEATURES SIGNS: ANTERIOR FONTANEL WIDE OPEN AND BULGING, INCREASED HEAD CIRC. DILATED SCALP VEINS SETTING SUN SIGN BRISK TENDON REFLEXES, SPASTICITY CLONUS, BABINSKY MACEWEN SIGN “CRACKED POT” PROMINENT OCCIPUT (DANDY-WALKER)

IMAGING STUDIES : 

IMAGING STUDIES X-RAY PLAIN FILMS: SEPARATION OF SUTURES EROSION OF POSTERIOR CLINOIDS INCREASED CONVOLUTIONAL MARKINGS (BEATEN SILVER APPEAREANCE) ULTRASOUND CT SCAN MRI

THERAPYMULTIDISCIPLINARY : 

THERAPYMULTIDISCIPLINARY MEDICAL: ACETAZOLAMIDE FUROSEMIDE SURGICAL: MAIN STAY V-P SHUNT PLACEMENT EXTRAVENTRICULAR DRAINAGE

VENTRICULOPERITONEAL SHUNT : 

VENTRICULOPERITONEAL SHUNT

PROGNOSIS : 

PROGNOSIS INCREASED RISK FOR DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES MEAN IQ IS REDUCED COMPARED TO GENERAL POPULATION ABNORMALITIES IN MEMORY SOME PATIENTS SHOW AGGRESSIVE OR DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR.

PROGNOSIS : 

PROGNOSIS VISUAL PROBLEMS: STRABISMUS VISUOSPATIAL ABNORMALITIES DECREASED VISUAL ACUITY VISUAL FIELD DEFECTS PATIENTS REQUIRE LONG TERM FOLLOW UP (MULTIDISCIPLINARY)

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU ANY QUESTIONS