Anatomi

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Anatomi & Fisiologi:

Anatomi & Fisiologi

Anatomi :

Anatomi Kajian mengenai struktur bahagian tubuh badan dan hubungannya antara satu dengan yang lain. Cth : Pemahaman mengenai hubungan antara otot, tulang sendi, tendon dan ligamen adalah penting untuk arahan latihan berat.

Fisiologi:

Fisiologi Kajian berkaitan dengan fungsi struktur tubuh, organ, sistem dalam tubuh badan. Cth : nutrisi, pembiakan dan perkumuan.

Developmental Anatomy:

Developmental Anatomy Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth

Levels of Structural Organization:

Levels of Structural Organization Chemical – atoms combined to form molecules Cellular – cells are made of molecules Tissue – consists of similar types of cells Organ – made up of different types of tissues Organ system – consists of different organs that work closely together Organism – made up of the organ systems

Levels of Structural Organization:

Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules 1 2 3 4 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems Atoms Molecules Smooth muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Connective tissue Smooth muscle tissue Epithelial tissue Blood vessel (organ) Heart Blood vessels Cardiovascular system Levels of Structural Organization Figure 1.1

SISTEM-SISTEM DALAM BADAN:

SISTEM-SISTEM DALAM BADAN Sistem tulang-tulang Sistem otot-otot sistem saraf sistem pengaliran darah sistem pencernaan sistem sel-sel sistem endokrin/hormon

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Integumentary system Forms the external body covering Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Skeletal system Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments Protects and supports body organs Provides the framework for muscles Site of blood cell formation Stores minerals

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Muscular system Composed of muscles and tendons Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression Maintains posture Produces heat

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Nervous system Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves Is the fast-acting control system of the body Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Cardiovascular system Composed of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Lymphatic system Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Respiratory system Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Digestive system Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Urinary system Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Male reproductive system Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens Main function is the production of offspring Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract

Organ Systems of the Body:

Organ Systems of the Body Female reproductive system Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina Main function is the production of offspring Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn

Organ Systems Interrelationships:

Organ Systems Interrelationships The integumentary system protects the body from the external environment Digestive and respiratory systems, in contact with the external environment, take in nutrients and oxygen

Organ Systems Interrelationships:

Organ Systems Interrelationships Nutrients and oxygen are distributed by the blood Metabolic wastes are eliminated by the urinary and respiratory systems Figure 1.2

Homeostasis:

Homeostasis Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside world The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms:

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms The variable produces a change in the body The three interdependent components of control mechanisms are: Receptor – monitors the environments and responds to changes (stimuli) Control center – determines the set point at which the variable is maintained Effector – provides the means to respond to the stimulus

Homeostatic Control Mechanisms:

Stimulus: Produces change in variable 1 2 3 Change detected by receptor Input: Information sent along afferent pathway to 5 Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis Variable (in homeostasis) Imbalance Imbalance Receptor (sensor) Control center 4 Output: Information sent along efferent pathway to Effector Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Figure 1.4

Negative Feedback:

Negative Feedback In negative feedback systems, the output shuts off the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood glucose levels

Negative Feedback:

Negative Feedback Figure 1.5

Positive Feedback:

Positive Feedback In positive feedback systems, the output enhances the original stimulus Example: Regulation of blood clotting Figure 1.6