AUTOMATION IN POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

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AUTOMATION IN POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT:

USING PROGRAMMABLE INTERFACE CONTROLLER AUTOMATION IN POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 1

INTRODUCING THE TOPIC:

Definition of power factor. Definition of power factor correction. Leading and lagging power factors. Importance of power factor to be unity. INTRODUCING THE TOPIC 2

OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT:

OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT To counteract the undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor that is less than one. To improve the stability and efficiency of transmission network. Monitoring the power factor changes using PIC and LCD in real time basis. 3

AVERAGE AND INSTANTANEOUS POWER:

AVERAGE AND INSTANTANEOUS POWER Average power. Instantaneous power. Difference between average power and instantaneous power. 4

TYPES OF POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER:

Passive PFC. Active PFC. Synchronous PFC. TYPES OF POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER 5

CAPACITIVE POWER FACTOR CORRECTION:

Resistive and inductive components of current. Types of capacitive power factor correction Bulk, static, inverter and solid state soft starter. CAPACITIVE POWER FACTOR CORRECTION 6

DESCRIPTION OF COMPLETE SYSTEM:

DESCRIPTION OF COMPLETE SYSTEM 7

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CIRCUIT COMPONENTS:

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CIRCUIT COMPONENTS Voltage and current step down arrangement To step down voltage and current using CT and PT To isolate control circuit from high voltage and current in the circuit. Analog to digital converter Converts the load voltage and current waveforms from sine to square. Zero crossing detector is used to detect whether power factor is lagging or leading. 8

PIC MICROCONTROLLER:

It is the heart or core of the entire operation. High operating speed , good interrupt capability. A single 5V source is required for programming. Low power consumption. Capacitor banks are switched according to the output of PIC. PIC MICROCONTROLLER 9

SWITCHING UNIT AND CAPACITOR BANKS:

SWITCHING UNIT AND CAPACITOR BANKS Switching unit consists of relays and contactors. PIC switches on/off the relays according to the power factor. Contactors at KEL have rating of 440V, 32A and 440V, 63A. Capacitor banks are connected in parallel. At KEL 4 capacitor banks are used, 25KVAR,10KVAR,20KVAR,20KVAR. 10

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY AND DC POWER SUPPLY:

Dot matrix liquid crystal display HD44780U is used. Can display up to one 8- character line. Requires a low power supply. PIC microcontroller and OPAMP IC requires a 5V DC supply. Relays require a 12V DC supply. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY AND DC POWER SUPPLY 11

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS:

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS 12

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 13

DEMERITS OF CAPACITOR PF CORRECTION:

Capacitor selection must be based on magnetizing current of motor. Over correction can cause equipment failure. Harmonics on the supply can cause over current in the capacitors. It can be reduced by using harmonic filters. Detuning reactors in series with capacitors can also reduce harmonics. DEMERITS OF CAPACITOR PF CORRECTION 14

APPLICATIONS OF PFC:

Used in electrical industry for power factor correction of linear loads. Also used in power factor correction of nonlinear loads in power supplies. Also helps in reducing supply harmonics. APPLICATIONS OF PFC 15

CONCLUSION:

A PIC microcontroller based power factor controller is capable of adding capacitor banks across the load automatically when the power factor is lagging and is capable of removing capacitor banks from load when there is leading power factor. This work also facilitates to monitor the power factor changes on LCD in real time basis This is suitable for applications where manual switching of capacitors is to be replaced by automatic switching. CONCLUSION 16

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