Management science : Management science 1.2
TAYLORS SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT, MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS, HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY : TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father of scientific management worked as a chief engineer in the Midvale steel works where he joined as a worker.
He states that the object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for each employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity of each employee. Slide 3: Taylor’s scientific management, in its essence, consists of a certain philosophy which results in the combination of four great principles of management, viz.,
the development of true science,
the scientific selection of workers,
their scientific selection and development and intimate,
Friendly co-operation between the management and their workmen. Slide 4: Taylor observed that inefficiency prevails n the organization because of three causes, viz.,
Workers feel that any increase in output would lead to unemployment.
Defective systems of management and because of these, each worker restricts his output in order to safeguard his interests and
Inefficient rule of thumb efforts and wasting methods of work. Slide 5: The elements of scientific management are:
Determination of the task
Planning of Industrial operations
Proper selection and training of workers
Improvement in methods of work
Modification of Organization
Mental revolution. Slide 6: Taylor also suggested modification of organization. This involves introduction of ‘Functional foremen ship’, According to this, two functions of planning and doing are divided. He has also suggested eight functional foremen, viz.,
Instruction card clerk
Time and cost clerk
Shop disciplinarian HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT : HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT 1. Division of Work:
2. Authority and Responsibility
4. Unity of command
5. Unity of direction
6. Sub-ordination of individual interest to general interests
7. Remuneration 8. Centralisation
9. Scalar chain
12. Stability of tenure of personnel
14. Esprit de Corps Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of needs : Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of needs Hawthorne Experiments : Hawthorne Experiments Elton Mayo, who is considered to be the founder of human relations movement and his associates, conducted the Hawthorne studies in the Hawthorne plant of western electric company, USA, between 1927 and 1932. Hawthorne Experiments… : Hawthorne Experiments… They stated that the employees’ morale has great influence on productivity and the manager should treat them as social beings instead of economic being or simply as cogs in a machine.
For solving any management problem, the manager should understand group attitudes and psychology as employees are members of a group. Hawthorne Experiments… : Hawthorne Experiments… The purpose of the experiment was to determine the effects of different levels of illumination on workers’ productivity.
The intensity of light under which one group was systematically varied (test group) while the light was held constant (control group) for the second group.
The productivity of the test group increased each time the intensity of the light increased.
However, productivity also increased in the control group which received no added light. Hawthorne Experiments… : Hawthorne Experiments… The researchers felt that something besides lighting was influencing the workers participation.
WHAT ARE THOSE FACTORS………….. Douglas McGregor’s – Motivation Theory X and Theory Y : Douglas McGregor’s – Motivation Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed famous X-Y theory in 1960, Douglas McGregor made his mark on the history of organizational management when he proposed the two theories of motivation by which managers view employee motivation. Motivation Theory X : Motivation Theory X A Theory X manager makes the following general assumptions:
Work is inherently distasteful to most people, who will attempt to avoid work whenever possible.
Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed.
Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems.
Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Motivation Theory X… : Motivation Theory X… Most people are self-centered. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives
Most people resist change.
Most people are gullible and not particularly intelligent.
Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of most employee motivation is money, with security as a strong second. Motivational Theory Y : Motivational Theory Y In strong contrast to Theory X, a Theory Y manager makes the following general assumptions:
Work can be as natural as play if the conditions are favorable.
People will be self-directed and creative to meet their work and organizational objectives if they are committed to them.
People will be committed to their quality and productivity objectives if rewards are in place that addresses higher needs such as self-fulfillment. Motivational Theory Y… : Motivational Theory Y… The capacity for creativity spreads throughout organizations.
Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.
Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Applying Theory Y Management - Business Implications : Applying Theory Y Management - Business Implications If Theory Y holds true, an organization can use these principles of scientific management to improve employee motivation:
Decentralization and Delegation