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Premium member Presentation Transcript Learning styles & listening strategies: Learning styles & listening strategiesHow do teachers choose an effective listening program?: How do teachers choose an effective listening program?Teaching effective listening: Students’ learning approach Students’ preferable ways of developing their listening skills Teaching effective listening Teachers’ task in listening programs : Finding a suitable listening program based on students' learning style Introducing a range of new learning styles and listening strategies Teachers’ task in listening programsInfluential Factors in students’ preferred learning styles : Ethnicity Age Type of task Previous learning Influential Factors in students’ preferred learning stylesWhat is a learning style?: What is a learning style? learning style: A concept that has been developed from the extensive work into cognitive styles, that is, how people think and act in certain ways. learning styleHow can we find out what kind of learner we are?: How can we find out what kind of learner we are?Nunan’s learning style questionnaire: Nunan (1996) drew up a questionnaire based on the extensive research of willing(1985,1989) Nunan’s learning style questionnaire Do you agree with the result?: Do you agree with the result?Are you a successful learner? : Are you a successful learner?Is there anyone who belongs to more than one type?: Is there anyone who belongs to more than one type?How does it help you in your further learning?: How does it help you in your further learning ?The cons of knowing our students’ learning style: Have implications for the syllabus The way in which syllabus is introduced to the learners The cons of knowing our students’ learning style General learning styles: General learning stylesGeneral learning styles: General learning styles are the approaches students prefer to adopt when learning, and they are generally Consistent behavior. General learning stylesWhat are the influential factors in a learning style? : What are the influential factors in a learning style?Influential factors: Personality Task type Time of the day Level of interest Motivation Influential factorsCognitive styles: Cognitive stylesCognitive styles (Witkin et al.1977): Cognitive styles ( Witkin et al.1977) Holistic Big picture>details overall understanding focusing on general features personal way relate new knowledge to existing one Serialistic systematic step-by-step sequential Field- independent learner Field-dependent learner Information processing theory: According to Biggs there are Three types of learners Information processing theoryBiggs categorization: Biggs categorization Intrinsically motivated to learn Put all their efforts into trying to understand something(full understanding). They believe everything they learn is worthwhile. Try to gain only enough information to complete a given task. Fear of failure Rely heavily on rote learning devices Deep learner Surface learnerPowerPoint Presentation: Focus on assessment and grades Learn to pass a test Well organized Strategic approaches toward learning Competitive drive toward learning Strategic learnerPowerPoint Presentation: Strategic approach Surface approach Deep approach Field-dependent Field- independent Diverger Converger Abstract Concrete active reflective social solitaryWhich one of them is your learning style?: Which one of them is your learning style? which one you wish you were?: which one you wish you were?Are these styles fixed or can they be changed?: Are these styles fixed or can they be changed?Which kind of listening activity are they suitable for?: Which kind of listening activity are they suitable for?should teachers force students to change? Or should they change their own method? : should teachers force students to change? Or should they change their own method?Violand-sanchez study: Teachers should change their methods to suit students’ learning style Create better learning environment Encouraging students to take part in their learning Violand-sanchez studyCulture clash is as much a problem as is teaching context.???: Culture clash is as much a problem as is teaching context.???Learning strategies: Learning strategiesWhat is a learning strategy?: What is a learning strategy?Learning strategy: “A specific mental procedure for gathering , processing , associating , categorizing , rehearsing and retrieving information or patterned skills.”(willing 1988:7) Learning strategyWhat is the best learning strategy?: What is the best learning strategy? An investigation of high school ESL students : Identified strategies in integrated learning tasks= + 638 20 distinctive categories O’Malley et al. (1985) An investigation of high school ESL students3 main areas of strategy use: Meta cognitive Cognitive Socioaffective Brown and palincsar (1982) 3 main areas of strategy useMetacognitive strategies: Metacognitive strategies The Ways learners Organize Monitor their learning EvaluateMetacognitive listening strategies: Metacognitive listening strategies Planning: Advanced organization Directed attention Selective attention Self-managementMetacognitive listening strategies: Metacognitive listening strategies Monitoring Comprehension monitoring Auditory monitoring Double-check monitoringCognitive strategies: Processes learners use to acquire the language Cognitive strategiesCognitive Strategies: Cognitive Strategies Inferencing Linguistic inferencing Voice inferencing Paralinguistic/ kinesic inferencing Extralinguistic inferencing Inferencing between partsCognitive Strategies: Cognitive Strategies Elaboration Personal elaboration World elaboration Academic elaboration Questioning elaboration Creative elaboration Imagery Summarization Translation Transfer Repetition Resourcing Grouping Note taking deduction/induction substitutionSocioaffective strategies: Socioaffective strategies The way learners use others to Enhance their learning Encourage themselves to continue learningSocioaffective strategies: Socioaffective strategies Cooperation Lowering anxiety Self-encouragement Taking emotional temperatureSILL Oxford language learning strategies questionnaire: SILL Oxford language learning strategies questionnaire 6 part 50 statements Part A:Memory strategies Part B:cognitive stratregies Part C:compensation strategies Part D:organizing&evaluating strategies Part E:affective strategies Part F:social strategiesImportance of strategies to teachers: Using suitable methods for teaching specific group of learners Finding out about students’ lack of certain strategies for certain tasks Importance of strategies to teachersLittle wood’s survey: HongKong Chinese students don’t take responsibility for the assessment of their learning. Little wood’s surveyWhat do we have to do for solving this problem?: What do we have to do for solving this problem?Factors affecting the acquisition and use of strategies: Factors affecting the acquisition and use of strategies Language to be learned Language level Knowledge about self Sex Motivation Learning style Career orientation Language teaching method Task requirementPowerPoint Presentation: motivation The more learners want to succeed in learning a language, the greater their range of strategies. factor description What is the implication of knowing about the strategies learners use?: What is the implication of knowing about the strategies learners use?Answer:: Adapt their teaching methods to suit specific group of learners Introducing new strategies to expand learners’ repertoires so that they can listen effectively in different situations Answer:What do you think about “language teaching method” factor?: What do you think about “language teaching method” factor?Who is an effective listener?: Who is an effective listener?Which listening approach is more effective ? top-down or bottom-up ? ..Which one is more popular?: Which listening approach is more effective ? top-down or bottom-up ? ..Which one is more popular?What are the significant differences between effective & ineffective listeners?: What are the significant differences between effective & ineffective listeners? Answer:: According to O’Malley , Chamot ,and Kupper (1989) effective and ineffective listeners differed in three main ways : Perceptual processing Parsing utilization Answer: Perceptual processing : Perceptual processing Are aware of when they stop attending and try to redirect their attention to the text Often put off by the length of the text and by the number of unknown words they encounter. When they stop attending they do a little to redirect their attention. Effective listeners Ineffective listenerParsing: Parsing Attend to larger chunks of information Attend to individual words when there is some message breakdown They utilize intonation and pauses and listen for phrases and sentences. Focus more on a word-by-word level Bottom-up strategy Effective listener In effective listenerUtilization: Utilization Use world knowledge Personal knowledge Self-questioning as a way of attending to the message. Active listeners Passive listeners Effective listeners Ineffective listenersCan we change ineffective listeners malfunctioned strategies?: Can we change ineffective listeners malfunctioned strategies?How can we prioritize our students’ listening needs?: How can we prioritize our students’ listening needs?How can students become aware of how to develop better listening habits? : How can students become aware of how to develop better listening habits?Answer:: Integration of listening strategies into language lessons: Think-aloud procedure(recording their thought and strategies while performing a language task) Listening to various texts in second language Answer:Example of A strategy-based approach to teaching listening: Example of A strategy-based approach to teaching listeningListening strategies in an ESP listening lesson: Listening strategies in an ESP listening lesson Motivational management Advanced organization Directed attention lowering anxiety Between part inferencing stress &intonation patterns(voice)PowerPoint Presentation: Cooperation Performance evaluation Personal elaboration Academic elaboration World elaboration Note taking Academic elaboration World elaboration Summarization performance evaluation You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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