SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

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AGREEMENT : 

AGREEMENT Subject Verb

Recognizing Subjects and Verbs : 

Recognizing Subjects and Verbs A complete sentence must have a SUBJECT and a VERB. The subject is the who or what that performs the action. The verb is the action word.

Spot the Subject and Verb : 

Spot the Subject and Verb The players on our side are strong. The players on our side are strong. Players is the subject and are is the verb. Once you’ve identified the Subject and the Verb, you have to make sure they agree in Number. Singular subjects require singular verbs and plural subjects require plural verbs.

Slide 4: 

Rule 1: Basic Principle Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. Add an ‘s’ on the end of regular verbs If the subject noun is ‘he, ‘she’, ‘it’: ‘He learns English every day.’ An uncountable noun: ‘Humanity learns English every day.’ or A singular countable noun: ‘This student learns English every day.’

Slide 5: 

Singular vs. Plural

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The girl dances. No –S on subject -S on verb

Slide 7: 

The girls dance. -S on subject No –S on verb

Rule 2: The indefinite pronouns : 

Rule 2: The indefinite pronouns each, each one, either, neither, everyone, anyone, someone, no one, everybody, anybody, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs Everyone associated with the project is proud to be part of the effort. Someone has to be responsible.

Slide 9: 

Everyone who worked on the science project is a winner. Someone has to answer the phone. Somebody has left her purse. Everyone has done his or her homework.

Slide 10: 

Don’t be confused by phrases that come between the subject pronoun and its verb — phrases that may contain plural words. Each of the project partners is responsible for writing a chapter summary.

Slide 11: 

Each of the basketball players is excited about tonight’s game. Each aircraft, tank and warship need/needs to be kept battle-worthy.

Indefinite Pronouns : 

Indefinite Pronouns Group 2—always plural both few many several Many are called, but few are chosen. Several are planning to leave their e-mail addresses after the lecture ends. Both are agreeable to me. [Contrast to: “Neither is agreeable to me.]

Rule 3 : 

Rule 3 The verb that accompanies pronouns such as all and some will be determined by whether the pronoun is referring to something that is COUNTABLE or not. Some of the workers on the building have left for the day. Some of the salt was spilled on the floor. You could count the workers. Salt is considered one lump item.

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Some of the grain ____ruined by the flood. Some of the students in the cafeteria ______voted already. Some of the beads ______ missing. Some of the water ________ gone. Some of our streams are polluted; some pollution is reversible, but all pollution is a threat to nature

Rule 4 : 

Rule 4 Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word , but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).

Slide 16: 

The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison. The mayor and his brothers are going to jail. The governor as well as his press secretary was shot. The governor and his press secretary were shot.

Rule 5 : 

Rule 5 With compound subjects connected by OR or nor, make the verb agree with the part of the subject nearer to the verb. The book or the pencil is… singular singular verb

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The president or his assistants run…

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The professor or the students walk the halls. The students or the professor walks the halls. Either the instructors or the student knows the answer. Neither the instructor nor the students has / have any control over the number of 8 o’clock classes. Either two credit cards or a membership is / are needed before you can rent movies

Slide 20: 

Two certificates or a credit card ____ required. A credit card or two certificates____required. Neither the real estate agent nor her clients ______ able to find the house. Note: The phrase the number of is treated as singular, and a number of as plural. The number of school-age children is declining. A number of children are attending the wedding.

Rule 6 : 

Rule 6 When the subject is made up of two or more nouns connected by and, use a plural verb. She and her friends are…

Slide 22: 

Leon and Jane often jog together. The moon and Venus are visible at night. Both the college newspaper and the literary magazine fail to attract experienced staff.

Slide 23: 

Exception: If the words joined by “and” refer to a single thing, the subject is also singular War and Peace is a very thick book (singular) My friend and co-worker is waiting to see you (singular) Salad and Cheese is our best selling sandwich. Compare:- Salad and Cheese are major ingredients in our special sandwich. Sue’s friend and adviser was surprised by her decision. Compare:- Sue’s friend and the/her adviser were surprised by her decision.

Rule 7 : 

Rule 7 Treat Collective nouns as singular unless the meaning is clearly plural. Words such as jury, committee, or herd will be singular when everyone in the group is acting together The army is marching towards the border. The crowd is raising slogans against the new tax policy.

Slide 25: 

Our class loves learning through group discussion. (singular) The class are debating among themselves. (plural) The jury has given its final verdict. (singular) The jury are divided in their opinion. (plural)

Rule 8 : 

Rule 8 Make the verb agree with its subject even when the subject follows the verb. When the sentence begins with Here or There, the subject follows the verb and controls whether the verb is plural Here are my reasons for quitting (plural) There is no need to pay me next week (singular) It is always singular It was the long hours that bothered me (singular)

Rule 9 : 

Rule 9 Who, which, and that take verbs that agree with their antecedents The rivers in our province, which mostly flow/flows through city-areas, are much-polluted. The river that flows through London is called the Thames.

Rule 10 : 

Rule 10 Titles of literary works/movies are to be taken as singular, despite their plural form. Great Expectations is/are a worth-reading novel. Tom and Jerry is still a favourite cartoon with children. Daffodils is one of the best poems on flowers.

Rule 11 : 

Rule 11 Words such as Economics, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics, Measles, and News, Civics, Mathematics, dollars are usually singular, despite their plural form. Statistics is among the most difficult courses in our programme. Measles is spreading rapidly in the shanty-town.

Slide 30: 

Note:- However, when some word describes separate items rather than a collective body of knowledge, it becomes plural. The statistics on school retention rates are impressive.

Rule 12 : 

Rule 12 Nouns like the following are always plural (because they are made of two parts): scissors tweezers trousers pants shears A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

Slide 32: 

Tim Berners-Lee, one of America’s most prominent computer scientists and —as a founder of the World Wide Web Consortium — one of the most important figures in the development of the Internet, has been working quietly at M.I.T. for many years. The fact that the plural “scientists” and “figures” appear in this sentence has no effect on our choice of a singular verb, “has.” Rule 13 Be careful when lengthy or numerous modifying phrases come between the subject and its verb.

Slide 33: 

The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have several political lives, is finally going to jail.

Rule 14 : 

Rule 14 Units of time, money, distance, and weight use singular verbs Twenty kilometres is a long distance to skate to work each day Eight dollars an hour is a poor rate

Rule 15 : 

Rule 15 Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb. More than one student has tried this. Two and two is four. Four times four divided by two is eight.

Subject-Verb Agreement : 

Subject-Verb Agreement Identify the sentences in which the subject and verb disagree in number (singular versus plural) Either the twins or Jim is waiting near the gate. Neither Jim nor the twins is waiting near the gate. There are no contingencies we have not considered. The primary support mechanism for most graduate students are fellowships. Fellowships are most graduate students’ primary support mechanism.

Slide 37: 

Among the investigators presenting papers was Dr. Shosh Segal. Carefully controlled conditions are a prime requirement in any experimental scenario.