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S E F A B A R S E F A B A R Sustainable European Farm Animal Breeding And Reproduction Working group on Fish Farming Hans KOMEN (1), Pierrick HAFFRAY (2), Michael NEW (3), Anne-Lisa Liinamo (4) (1) Wageningen University, (2 )SYSAAF, (3) European Aquaculture Society (4) Sefabar network coordinator

SEFABAR : 

SEFABAR EU -Concerted action by Farm Animal Industrial Platform (FAIP): 2000-2003 Partner 1: 4 working groups: Ruminants, Pigs, Poultry and Fish (industry and research)

SEFABAR : 

SEFABAR Other partners are: Ethics (sustainability is a buzz word!) Socio-economics (Economic sust!) Cultural differences (Europe!) Welfare (NGO’s) Consumer preferences (citizens vs consumers)

SEFABAR : 

SEFABAR Aim: To find environmentally sustainable, economically sound, and societal accepted breeding scenarios for major farm animal species, including fish.

Slide5: 

S E F A B A R S E F A B A R Defining Sustainable breeding goals for Aquaculture 1) Current status 2) Traits to be considered 3) Factors to be considered 4) Options for change in Breeding and Reproduction

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Increased consumption of aquatic products and necessity to preserve endangered wild stocks Farming activity since 1970; now more than 25 species cultured (Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, sea bream, sea bass, common carp, turbot, halibut, cod, sole etc.) Expected increase + 7,4 % EU production / year Most species are Carnivorous; few are omnivorous High cost of fish meat Current status of EU fish farming

Slide7: 

Rapid domestication  + 10 to 15 % weight gain / generation 70 % of the EU fish farming benefits from selective breeding compared to 3 % of the world aquaculture! (silver carp in china) Current status of EU fish farming

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Methods for Genetic improvement are a mix of animal and plant breeding: Family selection (BLUP), Triploidisation (sterile 3n), Hybridisation Current status of EU fish farming

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Transgenic technology banned in Europe, but producers have a keen interest in genomics Marker Assisted Selection/Introgression Parentage identification Tracebility Embryo technologies Current status of EU fish farming

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Growth rate (10-14% generation) Feed conversion (correlated response) Carcass and meat quality traits (tilapia 34<>37.5 % fillet yield) Resistance to pathogens and parasites (ISA, furunculosis) Jaw Deformities (G or E?) Age at reproduction (G or E?) Traits to be considered

Slide11: 

Negative impacts on environment : Genetic interaction from escapees with wild con-specifics Uncontrolled domestication and inbreeding (pedigree tracing) Difference of farming environments and production systems (cages, raceways, intensive systems) Factors to be considered

Slide12: 

Animal integrity (larval development and morphology, reproduction, respiration, etc.) Social perception of welfare and Biotechnology in Fish (densities, triploids, monosex) Cost efficiency (fish is 3-4 times more expensive than pork) Factors to be considered

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Manage genetic variability and improve fitness by control of domestication and prevention of inbreeding in aquaculture species Decrease cost of selection by developing selection models which incorporate molecular techniques for pedigree tracing and MAS/MAI (AFLP mapping; Double haploids; QTL selection) Prevent out crossing of escaped fish with wild stocks by development of Genetic User Restricted Technology Options for change in sustainable breeding and reproduction in fish farming

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Introduce new traits in selection decisions Improvement of meat quality and processing yields Improvement of disease resistance (fitness, genomics) Maintain animal integrity (correlated responses on reproduction, morphology, etc.) Increase ability to consume vegetal ingredients Improvement of F.C.R.(maintenance requirements) Different strains for different environments? (new breeds and IAA systems) Option for change in sustainable breeding and reproduction in fish farming

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Breeding scenarios for the future are market driven: Low cost market > license to produce (we solve the problems; they will tolerate us) Quality Assurance market > societal responsible entrepreneurs (we create opportunities; they will miss us) CONCLUSIONS

Slide16: 

Acknowledgements Manuel Carillo, Silvia Zanuy (ICTS), Sven Arid Korsvoll (Aquagen), Ashi Norris (Nutreco), Ingrid Olesen (Akvaforsk), Frans Ollevier, Filip Volckaert (Leuven University), Marina Pelipenko (Selonda)

Discussion : 

Discussion Fish farming is livestock producing industry: involve the industry! What are the driving forces? (markets/costs/profitability) What are the challenges (intensification or community participation?) (LTP or SRE?) Quality Assurance and the global economy (Europe and Asia?) What research tools do we need?

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