basics of cloudcomputing

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easy understanding of cloud computing

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Basics of Cloud computing

Basics of Cloud computing By a.v.nagarjuna reddy 09g31a0406

Introduction: 

Introduction Cloud computing is the use of computing resources ( hardware and software ) that are delivered as a service over a network ( typically the Internet ). The name comes from the use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation.

Types of cloud computing: 

Types of cloud computing Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) Platform as a service (PaaS) Software as a service (SaaS) Network as a service (NaaS) Storage as a service (STaaS) Security as a service (SECaaS) Data as a service (DaaS) Desktop as a service (DeaaS - see above) Database as a service (DBaaS) Test environment as a service (TEaaS) API as a service (APIaaS) Backend as a service (BaaS) Integrated development environment as a service (IDEaaS) Integration platform as a service (IPaaS)

History: 

History The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1950s, when large scale mainframe computers became available in academia and corporations. In the 1990s, telecommunications companies, who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering virtual private network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source, AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds.

History: 

History By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them" and observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models“. On March 1, 2011, IBM announced the Smarter Computing framework to support Smarter Planet. Among the various components of the Smarter Computing foundation, cloud computing is a critical piece.

Similar systems and concepts: 

Similar systems and concepts Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management. Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks." Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, police and secret intelligence services, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing.

Similar systems and concepts: 

Similar systems and concepts Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity”. Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model). Cloud gaming - Also known as on-demand gaming, this is a way of delivering games to computers. The gaming data will be stored in the provider's server, so that gaming will be independent of client computers used to play the game.

Cloud computing logical diagram: 

Cloud computing logical diagram

Service models: 

Service models Cloud computing providers offer their services according to three fundamental models: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of the lower models. In 2012 network as a service (NaaS) and communication as a service (CaaS) were officially included by ITU as part of the basic cloud computing models, recognized service categories of a telecommunication-centric cloud ecosystem.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS): 

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) In the most basic cloud-service model, providers of IaaS offer computers - physical or (more often) virtual machines - and other resources. (A hypervisor, such as Xen or KVM, runs the virtual machines as guests) . IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as images in a virtual-machine image-library, raw (block) and file-based storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS): 

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) To deploy their applications, cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure. In this model, the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed.

Examples of IaaS providers: 

Examples of IaaS providers Amazon Cloud Formation Amazon Ec2 Windows Azure Virtual Machines DynDNS Google Compute Engine HP Cloud Iland Joyent Rackspace Cloud Ready Space Cloud Services Terremark and NaviSite.

Platform as a service (PaaS): 

Platform as a service (PaaS) In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Some PaaS offers, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand such that cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually.

Examples of PaaS providers: 

Examples of PaaS providers Cloud Foundry Heroku Force.com EngineYard Mendix Google App Engine Windows Azure Compute and OrangeScape.

Software as a service (SaaS): 

Software as a service (SaaS) In the SaaS model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers simplifying maintenance and support. This can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the changing work demand.

Software as a service (SaaS): 

Software as a service (SaaS) To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, that is, any machine serves more than one cloud user organization. It is common to refer to special types of cloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service, business process as a service, test environment as a service, communication as a service.

Examples of SaaS providers: 

Examples of SaaS providers Google Apps Microsoft Office 365 Onlive GT Nexus Marketo Tradecard

Network as a service (NaaS): 

Network as a service (NaaS) A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the cloud service user is to use network/transport connectivity services and/or inter-cloud network connectivity services. NaaS involves the optimization of resource allocations by considering network and computing resources as a unified whole.

Most Common NaaS Service Models: 

Most Common NaaS Service Models Virtual Private Network (VPN) Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) Mobile Network Virtualization: Model consisting in a Telecom infrastructure manufacturer or independent network enabler that builds and operates a telecom network (wireless, or transport connectivity) and sells its communication access capabilities to third parties (commonly mobile operators) charging by capacity utilization.

Cloud clients: 

Cloud clients

Cloud clients: 

Cloud clients Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. Some cloud applications, however, support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop clients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.

Deployment models: 

Deployment models Cloud computing types

Public cloud: 

Public cloud Public cloud applications, storage, and other resources are made available to the general public by a service provider. These services are free or offered on a pay-per-use model. Generally, public cloud service providers like Amazon AWS, Microsoft and Google own and operate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet (direct connectivity is not offered).

Community cloud: 

Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.) whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.

Private cloud: 

Private cloud Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Undertaking a private cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize the business environment, and it will require the organization to reevaluate decisions about existing resources. When it is done right, it can have a positive impact on a business, but every one of the steps in the project raises security issues that must be addressed in order to avoid serious vulnerabilities.

Hybrid cloud: 

Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture, companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees of fault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internet connectivity. Hybrid cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site (remote) server-based cloud infrastructure. Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility, security and certainty of in-house applications. Hybrid cloud provides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloud based services

Cloud computing sample architecture: 

Cloud computing sample architecture

Characteristics: 

Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: Cost Virtualization Reliability Performance Maintenance Security

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