embedded systems ppt

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Embedded Systems:

@Anupam Basu 1 Embedded Systems Theory and Design

Course overview (contd):

@Anupam Basu 2 Course overview (contd) Tentative contents: Introduction to Embedded Computing Embedded System Hardware Embedded Computing Platform Programming Embedded Systems Embedded System Development 6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete System

Course Overview:

@Anupam Basu 3 Course Overview Evaluation criteria: Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teacher's Assessment) Mid Term (written): 20% End Term (written): 40%

What is an Embedded System:

@Anupam Basu 4 What is an Embedded System An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system ). O I

Application areas :

@Anupam Basu 5 Application areas Automotive electronics Aircraft electronics Trains Telecommunication

Application areas:

@Anupam Basu 6 Application areas Authentication Military applications Medical systems

Application areas:

@Anupam Basu 7 Application areas Consumer electronics Smart buildings Fabrication equipment

Essential Components:

@Anupam Basu 8 Essential Components Microprocessor / DSP Sensors Converters (A-D and D-A) Actuators Memory (On-chip and Off chip) Communication path with the interacting environment

Embedded System Structure (Generic):

@Anupam Basu 9 Embedded System Structure (Generic) Memory Processor & ASICs A-D Sensor D-A Actuator

Essential Considerations:

@Anupam Basu 10 Essential Considerations Response Time -- Real Time Systems Area Cost Portability Low Power (Battery Life) Fault Tolerance

Design Issues (Hardware-Software Co-design):

@Anupam Basu 11 Design Issues (Hardware-Software Co-design) System Specification Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints Hardware Software Partitioning Hardware Synthesis Software Synthesis and Code Generation Simulation Implementation

ES, MS and RTS:

@Anupam Basu 12 ES, MS and RTS All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor based systems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters). Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops) There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network) Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of control

General Characteristics of Embedded Systems:

@Anupam Basu 13 General Characteristics of Embedded Systems Perform a single task Usually not general purpose Increasingly high performance and real time constrained Power, cost and reliability are important considerations HW-SW systems Software is used for more features and flexibility Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and security

General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.):

@Anupam Basu 14 General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.) ASIC s Processor Cores ASIPs and ASICs form a significant component Adv: customization  lower power, cost and enhanced performance Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and larger time to market Mem Analog IO Digital

Classification of Embedded Systems:

@Anupam Basu 15 Classification of Embedded Systems Distributed and Non distributed Reactive and Transformational Control dominated and Data dominated

Application Specific Characteristics:

@Anupam Basu 16 Application Specific Characteristics Application is known before the system is designed System is however made programmable for Feature upgrades Product differentiation Often application development occurs in parallel to system development Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion IP reuse, object oriented development

DSP Characteristics:

@Anupam Basu 17 DSP Characteristics Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally Typical DSP processing includes: Filtering, DFT, DCT etc. Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc. Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc.

Distributed Characteristics:

@Anupam Basu 18 Distributed Characteristics Components may be physically distributed Communicating processes on multiple processors Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels Often economical 4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks Better logistics – devices being controlled may be physically distributed

Design Metrics:

@Anupam Basu 19 Design Metrics Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost NRE cost: $ cost for design and development Size: The physical space reqd. – determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw Performance: execution time or throughput of the system Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE cost

Design Metrics (contd.):

@Anupam Basu 20 Design Metrics (contd.) Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk Correctness: Test and Validation Safety: Often these metrics are contradictory – hence calls for optimization Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge Requires expertise in hw and sw both

Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design:

@Anupam Basu 21 Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design Modeling the system to be designed and constraints Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction Refinement HW-SW partitioning Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw Scheduling – allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation Simulation and Validation Iterate if necessary

What is Co-design?:

@Anupam Basu 22 What is Co-design? Traditional design SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis For embedded systems we need several components DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc. HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate result

CAD for Embedded Systems:

@Anupam Basu 23 CAD for Embedded Systems Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications Rapid prototyping and design space exploration Many of the tasks are interrelated Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the other

A Mix of Disciplines:

@Anupam Basu 24 A Mix of Disciplines Application Domain (Signal processing, control …) Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role) Programming Language Compilers and Operating System Architecture – Processor and IO techniques Parallel and Distributed Computing Real Time Systems

Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors:

@Anupam Basu Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors “... the New York Times has estimated that the average American comes into contact with about 60 micro-processors every day....” [Camposano, 1996] Latest top-level BMWs contain over 100 micro- processors [Personal communication] Most of the functionality of embedded systems will be implemented in software!

Views on embedded System:

@Anupam Basu 26 It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as 'regular' software The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPU's is applied in PC's ... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010; ... the number of constructors employed by software-producers 'merely' rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million. [Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded software research in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997 (according to: www.scintilla.utwente.nl/shintabi/engels/thema_text.html)] Views on embedded System

Some problems:

@Anupam Basu 27 Some problems How can we capture the required behaviour of complex systems ? How do we validate specifications? How do we translate specifications efficiently into implementation? Do software engineers ever consider electrical power? How can we check that we meet real-time constraints? How do we validate embedded real-time software? (large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical)