avinash sahani

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TISSUES

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Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. These are called tissues because of their identical functioning.Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease,histopathology. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopy,immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of clinical diagnosis and prognosis. TISSUES

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Plant tissue culture is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant. Different techniques in plant tissue culture may offer certain advantages over traditional methods of propagation, including: The production of exact copies of plants that produce particularly good flowers, fruits, or have other desirable traits. To quickly produce mature plants. The production of multiples of plants in the absence of seeds or necessary pollinators to produce seeds. The regeneration of whole plants from plant cells that have been genetically modified. The production of plants in sterile containers that allows them to be moved with greatly reduced chances of transmitting diseases, pests, and pathogens. The production of plants from seeds that otherwise have very low chances of germinating and growing, i.e.: orchids and nepenthes. To clean particular plant of viral and other infections and to quickly multiply these plants as 'cleaned stock' for horticulture and agriculture. PLANTS TISSUES

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Plant tissues can also be divided differently into two types: Meristematic tissues Permanent tissues Meristematic tissues Meristematic tissue consists of actively dividing cells, and leads to increase in length and thickness of the plant. The primary growth of a plant occurs only in certain, specific regions, such as in the tips of stems or roots. It is in these regions that meristematic tissue is present. Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells produced by meristem are initially those of meristem itself, but as the new cells grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they become differentiated as components of other tissues

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Depending on the region of occurrence of meristimatic tissues, they are classified as: I. Apical Meristem - It is present at the growing tips of stems and roots and increases the length of the stem and root. They form growing parts at the apices of roots and stems and are responsible for increase in length,also called primary growth.This meristem is responsible for the linear growth of an organ. II. Lateral Meristem - This meristem consist of cells which mainly divide in one plane and cause the organ to increase in diameter and growth. Lateral Meristem usually occurs beneath the bark of the tree in the form of Cork Cambium and in vascular bundles of dicots in the form of vascular cambium. The activity of this cambium results in the formation of secondary growth.

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Intercalary Meristem - This meristem is located in between permanent tissues. It is usually present at the base of node, inter node and on leaf base. They are responsible for growth in length of the plant.This adds growth in the girth of stem. The cells of meristematic tissues are similar in structure and have thin and elastic primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape. Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces.

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TYPES OF PLANT TISSUE

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PARENCHYMA TISSUE The parenchyma are the functional parts of an organ in the body. This is in contrast to the stroma, which refers to the structural tissue of organs, namely, the connective tissues. In cancer, the parenchyma refers to the actual mutant cells of a single lineage, whereas the stroma is the surrounding connective tissue and associated cells that support it. Parenchyma cells are thin-walled cells of the ground tissue that make up the bulk of most nonwoody structures, yet sometimes their cell walls can be lignified. Parenchyma cells in between the epidermis and pericycle in a root or shoot constitute the cortex, and are used for storage of food. They are mainly present in the soft areas of the stems, leaves, root, flowers, fruits etc. Parenchyma cells within the center of the root or shoot constitute the pith. Parenchyma cells in the ovary constitutes the nucellus and are brick-like in formation. Parenchyma cells in the leaf constitute the mesophyll; they are responsible for photosynthesis and they allow for the interchange of gases.

TWO TYPES OF PARENCHYMA TISSUE : 

PARENCHYMA TISSUE TWO TYPES OF PARENCHYMA TISSUE 1 2

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COLLENCHYMA TISSUE The name 'collenchyma' derives from the Greek word κολλα ("kól-la"), meaning "glue", which refers to the thick, glistening appearance of the walls in fresh tissues. Collenchyma tissue is composed of elongated cells with unevenly thickened walls. They provide structural support, particularly in growing shoots and leaves. Collenchyma tissue composes, for example, the resilient strands in stalks of celery. Its growth is strongly affected by mechanical stress upon the plant. The walls of collenchyma in shaken plants (to mimic the effects of wind etc.), may be 40%-100% thicker than those not shaken. The wall is made up of cellulose and pectin. Collenchyma cells are most often found adjacent to outer growing tissues, the vascular cambium and are known for increasing structural support and integrity.

TYPES OF COLLENCHYMA TISSUES : 

COLLENCHYMA TISSUES TYPES OF COLLENCHYMA TISSUES 1 2

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Sclerenchyma is a supporting tissue in plants. Two groups of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibres and sclereids. Their walls consist ofcellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Sclerenchyma cells are the principal, supporting cells in plant tissues that have ceased elongation. Sclerenchyma fibres are of great economical importance, since they constitute the source material for many fabrics (flax, hemp, jute,ramie). Unlike the collenchyma, mature sclerenchyma is composed of dead cells with extremely thick cell walls (secondary walls) that make up to 90% of the whole cell volume. The term "sclerenchyma" is derived from the Greek σκληρός ("sklē-rós"), meaning "hard". It is the hard, thick walls that make sclerenchyma cells important strengthening and supporting elements in plant parts that have ceased elongation. SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES

TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES : 

TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES SCLERENCHYMA TISSUES 1 2

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LOCATION OF MERISTEMATIC TISSUE IN PLANTS BODY

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A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM) gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers. The cells of the apical meristems - SAM and RAM (Root Apical Meristem) - divide rapidly and are considered to be indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end fate. In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, that have an analogous behavior and function. APICAL MERISTEM

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A meristem is the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. The meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant, and keep the plant growing. The Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM) gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers. The cells of the apical meristems - SAM and RAM (Root Apical Meristem) - divide rapidly and are considered to be indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end fate. In that sense, the meristematic cells are frequently compared to the stem cells in animals, that have an analogous behavior and function. INTERCALARY MERISTEM

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Plant cuticles are a protective waxy covering produced only by the epidermal cells [1] of leaves, young shoots and all other aerial plant organs without periderm. The cuticle tends to be thicker on the top of the leaf, but is not always thicker in xerophytic plants living in dry climates than in mesophytic plants from wetter climates, despite a persistent myth to that effect. The cuticle is composed of an insoluble cuticular membrane impregnated by and covered with soluble waxes. Cutin, a polyester polymer composed of inter-esterifiedomega hydroxy acids which are cross-linked by ester and epoxide bonds, is the best-known structural component of the cuticular membrane. LATETAL MERISTEM

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SECTTION OF A STEM

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ANIMAL TISSUES The name ‘Collenchyma's' derives from the Greek word κολλα ("k6ól-la"), meaning "glue", which refers to the thick, glistening appearance of the walls in fresh tissues. Collenchyma tissue is composed of elongated cells with unevenly thickened walls. They provide structural support, particularly in growing shoots and leaves. Collenchyma tissue composes, for example, the resilient strands in stalks of celery. Its growth is strongly affected by mechanical stress upon the plant. The walls of collenchyma in shaken plants (to mimic the effects of wind etc.), may be 40%-100% thicker than those not shaken. The wall is made up of cellulose and pectin.

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ANIMAL TISSUES

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Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two sub-groups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. Within single-unit smooth muscle tissues, the autonomic nervous system innervates a single cell within a sheet or bundle and the action potential is propagated by gap junctions to neighboring cells such that the whole bundle or sheet contracts as a syncytium (i.e., a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into cells). Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells; as such, they allow for fine control and gradual responses, much like motor unit recruitment in skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle is found within the walls of blood vessels (such smooth muscle specifically being termed vascular smooth muscle) such as in the tunica media layer of large (aorta) and small arteries, arterioles and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus (termed uterine smooth muscle), male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, arrector pili of skin, the ciliary muscle, and iris of the eye. The structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs, but the inducing stimuli differ substantially, in order to perform individual effects in the body at individual times. In addition, theglomeruli of the kidneys contain smooth muscle-like cells called mesangial cells. SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUES

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SMOOTH MUSCLE

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Loose connective tissue is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue,reticular tissue, and adipose tissue. Loose connective tissue is the most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates. It holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. It also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. Cells calledfibroblasts are widely dispered in this tissue; they are irregular branching cells that secrete strong fibrous proteins and proteoglycans as an extracellular matrix. The cells of this type of tissue are generally separated by quite some distance by a gel-like gelatinous substance primarily made up of collagenous and elastic fibers LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES

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LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES

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Nervous tissue is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue. Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions. It is composed of neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia cells, which assist propagation of the nerve impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neuron. Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that sends action potential signals to the next cell. Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, controls of muscles and glands, homeostasis, and mental activity. All living cells have the ability to react to stimuli. Nervous tissue is specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus. Nerve tissue (as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are easily stimulated and transmit impulses very rapidly. A nerve is made up of many nerve cell fibers (neurons) bound together by connective tissue. NERVOUS TISSUES

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NERVOUS TISSUES

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Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transportswaste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[1] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones,carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), platelets and blood cells themselves. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes) and white blood cells, including leukocytes and platelets. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates transportation of oxygen by reversibly binding to thisrespiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is almost entirely transported extracellularly dissolved in plasma asbicarbonate ion. BLOOD TISSUES

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FORMATION OF BLOOD TISSUES

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BLOOD CELLS

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BLOOD CELLS

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RED BLOOD CELLS AND PLATELETS

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RED BLOOD CELLS

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In biology, columnar refers to the shape of epithelial cells that are taller than they are wide.[1] Form follows function in biology, and columnar morphorphology hints at the functions of the cell. Columnar cells are important in absorption and movement of mucus. The cells may or may not bear microvilli (involved in maximizing the surface area for intestinal absorption) or cilia (involved in moving mucus and trapped material up the respiratory passages to be expectorated or swallowed). Columnar epithelium may be simple or stratified. Simple columnar epithelium is most common and involves one layer of cells attached to a basement membrane. The nucleus is closer to the basal aspect of the cell than the apical aspect. Single stratification tends to indicate absorptive function. Stratified columnar epithelium is rare but can be found in salivary glands. It consists of a layer of columnar epithelium resting on top of at least one other layer of epithelial cells, which may have any shape (columnar, cuboidal, or squamous). Stratification in cuboidal tissue has a secretory function. COLUMNAR TISSUES

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COLUMNAR TISSUES

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EPITHELIAL TISSUES

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These cells provide protection and may be active (pumping material in or out of the lumen) or passive, depending on the location and cellular specialization. They are also found in kidney tubules, glandular ducts, ovaries, and the thyroid gland. Simple cuboidal cells are found in single rows with their spherical nuclei in the center of the cells and are directly attached to the basal surface. They also constitute the germinal epithelium which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes.[1] These cells offer some protection and function in absorption and secretion. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

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A simple columnar epithelium is a columnar epithelium that is uni-layered. In humans, a simple columnar epithelium lines most organs of the digestive tract including the stomach,small intestine, and large intestine. Simple ciliated columnar epithelia line the uterus In anatomy, squamous epithelium (from Latin squama, "scale") is an epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of flat, scale-like cells called squamous epithelial cells. Epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then asstratified squamous epithelium. Both types perform differing functions, ranging from nutrient exchange to protection SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

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A pseudostratified epithelium is a type of epithelium that, though comprising only a single layer of cells, has its cell nuclei positioned in a manner suggestive of stratified epithelia. As it rarely occurs as squamous or cuboidal epithelia, it is usually considered synonymous with the term pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The term pseudostratified is derived from the appearance of this epithelium in section which conveys the erroneous (pseudo means false) impression that there is more than one layer of cells, when in fact this is a true simple epithelium since all the cells rest on the basal lamina. The nuclei of these cells, however, are disposed at different levels, thus creating the illusion of cellular stratification. Not all ciliated cells extend to the luminal surface; such cells are capable of cell division providing replacements for cells lost or damaged. Pseudostratified epithelia function in secretion or absorption. If a specimen looks stratified but has cilia, then it is a pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, since stratified epithelia do not have cilia. PSCUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED CALUMNAR EPITHELIAL

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A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity. Although this epithelium is referred to as squamous, many cells within the layers may not be flattened; this is due to the convention of naming epithelia according to the cell type at the surface. In the deeper layers, the cells may be columnar or cuboidal.[citation needed] This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as it is the thickest and layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement membrane is exposed. It forms the outermost layer of the skin and the inner lining of the mouth, esophagus, and vagina.[citation needed] STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

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A simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of flat cells in contact with the basal lamina (basement membrane) of the epithelium. This type of epithelium is often permeable and occurs where small molecules pass quickly through membranes via filtration or diffusion. Simple squamous epithelia are found in capillaries, alveoli, glomeruli, and other tissues where rapid diffusion is required Simple squamous epithelial cells are thin and flat (the thinnest of all epithelial cell-types), which allows them to have a large surface area that is exposed to the lumen on one side (the apical surface), and to the basement membrane (i.e. basal lamina) on the other (the basolateral surface; Figure 1). The cells, scale-like in appearance, tend to have larger, elliptically-shaped nuclei. As a simple type of epithelium, simple squamous epithelium is one cell-layer thick, and thus every cell of the tissue comes in direct contact with the basement membrane. As with other types of epithelia, simple squamous epithelial cells are bound together by tight junctions, forming a selective barrier, which is crucial to its function. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHE LIUM

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HUMAN MUSCLE TISSUES

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