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Chapter 16:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16 Feeding Infants

Infant Growth Patterns:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Infant Growth Patterns Infants experience rapid growth during the first year: Gains approximately 2/3 ounce/day between birth and 6 months; gains of 1/2 ounce/day between 6 and 12 months are typical. Length increases by approximately 10 inches. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is higher than an adults’.

Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs Rapid growth Small stomach capacity Physiological and developmental readiness

Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs ( continued ) Rapid growth Infants require approximately 45 to 55 calories per pound/body weight during the first six months; 40 to 50 calories/pound are needed during the second six months Small stomach capacity Infants are able to consume only limited amounts at each feeding so they must eat often

Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Determinants of Infants’ Nutrient Needs ( continued ) Physiological and developmental readiness : Intestines —are not fully functional; they do not produce the enzyme amylase, which is needed for digesting starches (i.e., cereals). Kidneys —are not effective in filtering waste products, thus making infants more prone to dehydration. Tongue —reflexes allow infant to suck but not to move food from front to back of mouth.

Feeding Infants:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Feeding Infants Breast milk or formula provide all the nutrients an infant needs for optimal growth and development during the first four to six months with the exception of vitamin D. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a daily supplement of 400 IU of vitamin D for breast fed infants. Formula-fed infants do not require this because formulas contain vitamin D Semisolid (pureed) foods should not be introduced before this time.

Breast-Feeding:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Breast-Feeding Advantages (for infant): Provides the right mix of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in forms that are easy to digest Is high in calories to meet the infant’s growth and energy needs Is especially high in calcium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin C Provides friendly bacteria that help the infant’s intestines to develop

Breast-Feeding (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Breast-Feeding ( continued ) Advantages (for infant) ( continued ): Provides the infant with temporary protection (antibodies) against many viral and bacterial illnesses Less likely to cause an allergic response Volume is produced in response to the infant’s needs Always ready on demand Breast-fed infants have been shown to have lower rates of obesity

Breast-Feeding (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Breast-Feeding ( continued ) Advantages (for mother): A convenience food—no mixing, correct temperature, no dishes to wash Less expensive—no formula to purchase; however, mothers must increase their dietary intake of certain nutrients Sanitary conditions—always clean; less chance for introduction of harmful bacteria Helps to return the reproductive system back to normal

Breast-Feeding (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Breast-Feeding ( continued ) Disadvantages (for mother): Must be available May limit father’s involvement in the feeding process Mother must pay attention to the quality of her diet Requires family support and freedom from anxiety May not be advisable if mother is ill or taking certain medications

Formula Feeding:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Formula Feeding Commercial formulas are similar in composition to breast milk, but do not contain protective antibodies. Manufacturers have recently added two essential fatty acids (DHA and ARA) previously missing from U.S. formulas. Mixing with bottled water is recommended to avoid introducing environmental contaminants.

Breast Milk versus Formula:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Breast Milk versus Formula Both methods adequately meet an infant’s nutrient needs and provide an opportunity for bonding. Mothers may choose not to nurse or to use a combination of breast- and formula feeding based on a variety of factors, including: Illness or mother’s need to take certain medications Mother needs to be away from the infant periods of time Personal choice Mother uses addictive drugs, including tobacco

How to Determine an Infant’s Nutrient Needs:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. How to Determine an Infant’s Nutrient Needs An infant’s nutrient needs are based on: Growth (height, weight) that continues at an appropriate rate Energy for active play Absence of frequent illness

Introduction of Solid Foods—Knowing When an Infant Is Ready for Solid Food:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Introduction of Solid Foods—Knowing When an Infant Is Ready for Solid Food Is able to accept foods and swallow Is able to sit up in a chair Is able to assert self (turns head away, indicates when no longer hungry) Is ready to interact and socialize Begins to enjoy touching and picking up foods

Introduction of Solid Foods (continued):

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Introduction of Solid Foods ( continued ) Usually foods are introduced in the following order: Cereals —rice being the first because it is less likely to cause an allergic response Vegetables Fruits Meats and other proteins Avoid honey or foods containing honey; they may contain botulism spores. This process may be delayed and take longer for some children who have special needs.

Feeding Cautions:

©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Feeding Cautions Choking is common during an infant’s transition from milk to solid foods. Children with certain types of special needs may be more prone to choking. Know how to perform the Heimlich maneuver and CPR. Always cut food in small pieces! Avoid serving foods that are hard to chew (raw carrots) or sticky (peanut butter) and difficult to swallow.

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