# SCUBA Diving Guide - Basic of Scuba Diving

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## Presentation Description

Description and Presentation on Scuba Diving. Know Everything about scuba diving, if you are beginner .

## Presentation Transcript

### SCUBA Diving Guide:

SCUBA Diving Guide Full Name of Scuba Dive Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

### PADI Open Water Course :

PADI Open Water Course Course Requirements must be completed for certification Knowledge development- completed before pool Read PADI manual, complete worksheet, Video and quiz for all 5 chapters Pass PADI final exam 2 pool practice sessions 4 ocean dives, 2 per day

### Water Pressure and Air Volume:

Water Pressure and Air Volume At Sea level the weight of the atmosphere above us exerts a pressure of 1 Atmosphere (14.7 psi) on us Water is heavier than air so it only takes 33 feet of water to equal 1 ATM of pressure At 33 feet under water you are at a pressure of 2 ATM, 1 from the atmosphere and 1 from the water above you Pressure increases by 1 ATM every 33 feet(10 meters)

### Water Pressure and Air volume:

Water Pressure and Air volume

### Depth, Pressure and air Density:

Depth, Pressure and air Density

### Depth, Pressure and Surface Equivalent :

Depth, Pressure and Surface Equivalent

### Increasing Pressure and Body Air Spaces:

Increasing Pressure and Body Air Spaces Body air spaces include Lungs, inner ear, sinuses and mask and possibly teeth fillings To equalize your ears and sinuses pinch your nose and blow gently against it To equalize your mask exhale out your nose adding air to the mask If you cannot equalize stop your descent immediately, signal your buddy or instructor An unequalized air space is called a squeeze

### Equalization of Air Spaces:

Equalization of Air Spaces Ascend slightly until discomfort passes and try again, after you equalize descend slower and equalize more often Continuing to descend with unequalized air spaces can lead to dammage to the eardrum An unequalized mask can cause bruising around the eyes If you cannot equalize stop the dive

### Equalization of Air Spaces:

Equalization of Air Spaces Never attempt a forceful or extended equalization Use short gentle, frequent equalizations Never dive with a cold or allergy, congestion can block sinuses and air passages Cold medications can wear off during a dive Never use ear plugs or goggles while diving

### Equalization of Air Spaces:

Equalization of Air Spaces Lung equalization is accomplished by normal continuous breathing Skin (Breath Hold) Diving poses special problems, do not descend after exhaling or breath hold diving deeper than 200 feet Do not Dive with lung congestion which can trap air

### Effects of Decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces:

Effects of Decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces Air pressure decreases during ascent Expanding air must exit the body This happens naturally in your ears, sinuses and mask Expanding air in your lungs is most important Normal breathing while ascending will release expanding air from your lungs Never Hold your breath While on SCUBA

### Effects of Decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces :

Effects of Decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces Most Important Rule in SCUBA is Always Breath Lung over expansion can happen in as little as 3 feet, a slight pressure change Lung over expansion injuries are difficult to treat and can cause paralysis and death by forcing air into the blood stream and chest cavity Anytime the regulator is not in your mouth exhale a slow steady stream of bubbles

### Effects of decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces:

Effects of decreasing Pressure on Air Spaces Reverse Blocks result when expanding air becomes trapped in a body air space Reverse blocks can occur when diving with a cold or allergy or using cold medicine Gas can form in the stomach or intestine and may take time to pass A tooth squeeze is rare but can happen if air is trapped under a filling If you feel discomfort on ascent, stop descend a few feet, give the air time to escape and ascend slower

### Breathing Underwater:

Breathing Underwater Pressure increases with depth and decreases air volume Each breath fills the same lung volume so more air is needed to fill each breath The deeper you are the faster you use air A tank of air that lasts 1 hour at 0 feet will last ½ hour at 33 feet (10 meters)

### Section 2 :

Section 2 Water is 800 times denser than air which causes many differences between terrertrial and aquatic worlds Magnification- underwater everything looks 1/3 larger which causes it to look closer Color loss occurs as you go deeper, red, yellow and orange penetrate the least, Blue, green and purple penetrate the deepest Underwater sound travels faster and greater distances, we cannot tell the direction it is coming from

### Swimming and Moving:

Swimming and Moving Because of waters density streamlining is very important to reduce drag and save energy Increasing your speed while swimming requires 4 times more energy and air consumption Trim your body position so feet and head are approximately level by placing the correct amount of weight and appropriate position

### Staying Warm :

Staying Warm Water absorbs heat 20 times faster than air, you can chill rapidly in water 86 degrees Hypothermia is a serious condition, uncontrolled shivering means end the dive and exit the water immediately An appropriate exposure suit, wet or dry suit will keep you comfortable while diving Wet suits work by absorbing water which your body heats and retaining that water so you do not have to reheat new water

Wet Suits

Dry Suits

### Section 3:

Section 3 Dive environments and conditions vary world wide and by season and assessing these can affect your dive plans Besides season water depth can affect temperature, the deeper you go the colder it can get, wear an appropriate exposure suit Visibility can range from 0 to 200 feet and is affected by water movement, weather, plankton and bottom composition

### Water Movement:

Water Movement Two types of water movement affect diving, waves and current The stronger the wind the larger the waves, smaller waves 1-3 feet seldom affect diving but larger waves require more experience and may prevent diving Currents are a result of waves, tides, heating and cooling water and the earths rotation Begin your dive into or against the current, when you head back the current will assist you

### Water Movement cont.:

Water Movement cont. Currents tend to be strongest at the surface, swim along the bottom where the current is generally weaker If you miss your exit point or boat swim across the current rather than directly into it, there is generally a trail (tag) line off the back of the boat If you cannot get to the boat, establish buoyancy, fill your BC or drop weights and signal the boat to pick you up

### Trail ( Tag ) Line :

Trail ( Tag ) Line

Dive Boat

### Descending Anchor Line:

Descending Anchor Line

### Bottom Composition :

Bottom Composition Bottom composition types-silt/mud, sand, rock, coral, vegetation Bottom composition may be multiple types at a dive site Avoiding bottom contact keeps visibility clearer and avoids hazards like cuts or scrapes Aquatic organisms may be fragile and damaged if touched Stay neutrally buoyant and only touch insensitive bottoms if necessary

### Assessing Conditions:

Assessing Conditions You are responsible for your own safety and you will be part of the final decision on making the dive One of the skills you will develop as a diver is assessing conditions weather, water motion, visibility, reports online and reports from other divers An area orientation dive will help you become familiar with local conditions, hazards and points of interest Ref: Scuba Diving in Goa