Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research This study tracks the language preferences of three French/English bilingual children; twin girls aged 13 and a boy 15, over a 72 month period. Using weekly tape recorded conversations of family dinner time conversations in the children’s home, the authors are able to plot drastic language shifts of the participants in this ethnographic case study. The children were also observed both at school and at home. Furthermore, children, their parents and class teachers were interviewed as individuals and as a group. Transcripts of the interviews and observations were examined to identify themes for analysis and discussion. The findings indicated several factors that might have an impact on bilingual children and concluded several implications about the process of SLA . Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research This paper presents the results of a large-scale study that investigated the beliefs of 937 7th grade students from six secondary education schools and 45 English language teachers from these schools about foreign language learning. The data was collected using a 34-item self-report questionnaire, the results of comprehensive proficiency tests of secondary schools, and semi-structured teacher interviews. The data was entered to a statistics program (SPSS) and analysed using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that many of the mismatched learner beliefs negatively affected EFL proficiency. Additionally, learners’ responses to several other questionnaire items were considered to have implications for the language learning and teaching of EFL. Research Methods: Research Methods in Classroom Research THE PURPOSE: THE PURPOSE To learn the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours of teachers and students. Action Research: Action Research is teachers’ investigation of their own classroom in order to solve classroom problems. has three stages: teachers’ identifying a concrete problem gathering data analysing the data and sole the initial problem Action Research- Argument: Action Research- Argument TEACHER REFLECTION OR RESEARCH ? 1. Research Methods- Surveys: 1. Research Methods- Surveys is the most controlled and structured method might be qualitative and quantitative might have various sample size gives importance to participant selection and writing effective research questions favour the two common data colection instruments: questionnaires and interviews 2. Introspective Research: 2. Introspective Research includes teachers’/learners’ reflection on their thinking proceses/beliefs/experience uses two data collection instruments: Verbal reports Diaries Verbal Reports: Verbal Reports usually applied through writing or reading tasks by learners include learners’ verbalizing their thought processes while engaged/or immediately after completing the task are think-aloud protocols has some limitations Diary Studies: Diary Studies includes teachers’ or learners’ keeping a detailed record of their teaching and learning experience and their reflections 3. Qualitative Research: 3. Qualitative Research is less structured/controlled has two particular types: Case studies Ethnographies Research Questions and Designs: Research Questions and Designs Specifying a Research Question: 1.specify an area of inquiry you are interested in 2. ask a general research question 3. reading/reviewing the related literature 4. formulating a specific research question Specifying a Research Question: : Specifying a Research Question: Group Working What are the characteristics of effective group work tasks? ? Specifying a Research Question: : Specifying a Research Question: Vocabulary Learning Is guessing words from contexts a productive strategy for vocabulary learning? ? Developing a Research Design: Developing a Research Design orienting decisions: strategic decisions research design and methodology data analysis presenting and reporting the results (Cohen, Manion, and Morrison. 2000) Orienting Decisions: Orienting Decisions What are the general aims of the research? Who is likely audience for the research? What are the constraints of the research? What is the time frame for the research? What ethical issues need to be dealt with in undertaking the research? What resources are required for the research? Research Design and Methodology: Research Design and Methodology What is the main methodology of the research? How will validity and reliability be dealt with? What kinds of data will be gathered, and how it will be gathered? Who will undertake the research? Data Analysis: Data Analysis How will the data gathered analysed? Presenting and Reporting the Results: Presenting and Reporting the Results Who will be the audience for the report? When will the report be written? Where will the report be shared? How will the data be presented? ETHICAL RESEARCH: ETHICAL RESEARCH When doing classroom research the researchers/teachers have obligation to use the data gathered to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning for that particular group of participants. Empowering research needs to be research on, for , and with . Respecting Participants: Respecting Participants “Persons are not objects and should not be treated as objects”. (Human beings) “Subjects have their own agendas and research should try to address them”. (participants’ choices if possible) If knowledge is worth having, it is worth sharing”. (with professionals and participants as well) Following Institutional Guidelines: Following Institutional Guidelines The participants must be COMPETENT to begin the informed consent process. The researchers must DISCLOSE all relevant information to the potential participant: The purpose of the study, procedure, intervention types- possible risks, benefits. The participant must COMPREHEND the information. Following Institutional Guidelines: Following Institutional Guidelines The Participant must AGREE to the proposed intervention in the study. The participant’s aggreement must be VOLUNTARY and free from coercion. Informed Consent Forms: Informed Consent Forms indicate the data gathered may be used in future publications explain your purpose and the procedure briefly. Make sure that the identity of the participants would be protected. explain the possible risks and benefits. Point out that the individual’s participation is voluntary and s/he may withdraw from the research at any time with no penalty. Gaining Access: Gaining Access Get in contact with key administrators in order to get permission to work there. Ask potential participants to sign informed consent forms (if minors- parents, ask more than you need). Explain the goals of your research and procedure. Answer all the questions asked. Establish good relations! Treat the participants with respect. Make them sure that the research will be beneficial to them.