Qualitative Research methodology methods

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QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Limited number of participants Longitudinal Data triangulation Interpretative analysis and categorization of the data Desciptive language- no statistics

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Has two particular types Case Studies Ethnographies

Case Studies :

Case Studies A case is a single istance of a bound system Individual- a class- a school- an entire community Common data collection instruments include: interview, observation, verbal report, diary and narrative account

Distinctive Features of Case Studies Hitchcock and Hughes (1995):

Distinctive Features of Case Studies Hitchcock and Hughes (1995) Rich descriptions of events Chronologically ordered Analysis of events Analysis of people (perceptions) Highlighting specific events Richness of the case is shown in the report

Purposes of Case Studies Yin (2003):

Purposes of Case Studies Yin (2003) Explain causal links Reasons of students’ being unsuccessful Describe an intervention A particular teaching method or activity Evaluate a certain case Implementing a task-based curriculum

Conducting Case Study Research:

Conducting Case Study Research A research question: “how” or “why” A proposition: a theoretical orientation A unit of analysis: Defining the case Pattern Matching: Linking data and proposition The criteria for interpreting the findings: How much evidence is necessary?

Limitations Of Case Studies:

Limitations Of Case Studies Little evidence for generalizability

A Case Study Protocol Yin (2003):

A Case Study Protocol Yin (2003) An overview: Objectives, issues examined and literature review Field procedures: Procedure- consent forms Case study questions- research questions Reporting: Organizing the paper and data

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Research question- starts examining students and how they cope with academic writing demands How ESL students acquire the writing forms needed for their academic discipline and how their experience in their non-ESL courses helped to shape their acquisition of these forms ?

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Participants: 5 ESL learners at a university in the U. S. all had some previous writing experience Duration: One semester – students’ first semester

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Theoretical orientation: students’ writing development is not solely a factor of their ESL writing class but rather a factor of their general academic literacy experience as well as their personal experience

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Variety of Data interviews: once a week with each learner app. an hour interviews with teachers of each students- an hour student journals: academic experience observations: rich descriptions students’ all written materials

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Role of the researcher She is part of what is being studied She does not intervene Interviews the students, observes classes, and examines students’ written work

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Data Analysis- Findings Discovering reoccuring patterns Strategies students used to cope with academic writing demands Relying on past learning Looking for models Accomodating teachers’ demands Resisting teachers’ demands

Sample Case Study Leki (1995):

Sample Case Study Leki (1995) Conclusions: Students already developed their writing strategies and they were able to alter and adopt new ones when necessary Implications: ESL classes should attempt to build on strategies students already developed Since writing demands change across disciplines, ESL teachers should teach students general strategies

Ethnographic Studies:

Ethnographic Studies Started in anthropology- in-depth studies of particular cultures Today- classroom investigations Have two perspectives: Emic:from the perspective of the participants Etic: from a researcher’s perspective

Ethnographic Studies:

Ethnographic Studies Have a holistic view- fuller representation Observation in a variety of contexts Interviews with many people (parents, teachers etc.) Longitudinal- one or more years Involve data triangulation

Limitations of Ethnographic Research:

Limitations of Ethnographic Research Balance between insider X outsider perspective Too familiar: may have biases Unfamiliar: May not be able to get an insider’s view

Key Components of Ethnographic Research:

Key Components of Ethnographic Research 1. Observation Setting: space and objects System: Procedures, rules People: students and teachers Behaviour: events- vocabulary teaching, listening tasks, games, story-telling

How to Observe:

How to Observe Observe and record everything : A broad look Observe and look for nothing : To notice unusual happenings Look for paradoxes : a quite student becomes talkative Identify key problems : not participating class discussions

Key Components of Ethnographic Research:

Key Components of Ethnographic Research 2. Taking Field notes Taking a record of what the researcher has seen or heard. Field notes include everthing that the research thinks important Field notes need to be taken carefully noting time and place and kept

How to Take Field Notes:

How to Take Field Notes Should be descriptive Should contain what people say Should contain researcher’s own feelings and reactions Should include interpretations- for analysis

Analysing Ethnographic Data:

Analysing Ethnographic Data Time consuming and tedious Researcher chooses one of the alternatives: Chronology- over time Key events- by their significance Various settings- where they occur People- individuals or groups Issues- key issues

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994):

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994) 4 recently immigrated Chinese immigrants Lasts 3,5 years Transition from ESL to mainstream classroom- differences in language use, socializing Full day observation (315 hours), , informal discussions, interviews (38) with students and teachers, samples of school work and homework

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994):

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994) Conclusions: Mainstream classes: + authentic input and communicative interaction - little opportunity for extended interaction and explicit feedback - feeling as outsider ESL classes: + explicit instruction, counseling and peer interaction - considered as easy and remedial

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994):

Sample Ethnographic Classroom Research- Harklau (1994) Implications: Detailed ethnographic studies like this may provide educators with a basis for developing new programs for recently arrived immigrants that better meet their language, content, and social needs.

Practice!:

Practice! Page 206 Article by Deniz Kurtoğlu Eken (1999) Through the Eyes of the Learner: learner observations of teaching and learning Answer the questions on page 204

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