Action Research methodology methods

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ACTION RESEARCH:

ACTION RESEARCH

ACTION RESEARCH:

ACTION RESEARCH DEFINITION MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURES

ACTION RESEARCH:

ACTION RESEARCH is teachers’ investigation of their own classroom in order to solve classroom problems. Action – (bring changes) Research – (problem+ data + data analysis)

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTION RESEARCH:

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF ACTION RESEARCH carried out by practitioners (teachers) collaborative- participatory aimed at changing things contextual, small-scale, localized evaluative, reflective (brings changes) based on data

The Emergence/Development of Action Research:

The Emergence/Development of Action Research Developed in the late nineteenth and early 20th century John Dewey (EDUCATOR) -researchers, practitioners should address their efforts towards educational research collectively in order to solve common educational problems.

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH:

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH Kurt Levin (1940s), a social psychologist He proposed that the stimulus to research should reside in group social problems investigated within their own practical environment and involving the players within those environments in developing action.

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH:

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH Lewin suggessted four-stage action cycle: Planning Acting Observing Reflecting Stephen Corey (1950s) Taba and Noel (1950s)

LIMITATIONS OF ACTION RESEARCH:

LIMITATIONS OF ACTION RESEARCH cannot test hypothesis cannot establish cause and effect relationships cannot be generalised

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH:

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH The late 1950s in the U.S. resulted with the virtual disappearance of action researh This decline caused the understanding of the need for action research in other countries e.g. England in 1970s.

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH:

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH The renewed interest was linked to the emergence of curriculum development – practitioners were central to curriculum development

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH:

THE EMERGENCE/DEVELOPMENT OF ACTION RESEARCH Schwab Lawrence Stenhouse Elliott and Adelman had a major impact on the acceptability of action research and on the development of the concept of “teacher as researcher”

REASONS WHY ACTION RESEARCH IS RESEARCH RATHER THAN REFLECTION:

REASONS WHY ACTION RESEARCH IS RESEARCH RATHER THAN REFLECTION systematic collaborative (more valid and reliable) both problem solving and posing research done on particular people suggests real problems in L2 teaching and ways for addressing them

ACTION RESEARCH PROCEDURES:

ACTION RESEARCH PROCEDURES (Cohen, Manion and Morrison. 2000) Stage 1:Identifying, evaluating, formulating a problem Stage 2: Consulting with others Stage 3: Reviewing the literature Stage 4: Modifying, redefining the problem

ACTION RESEARCH PROCEDURES:

ACTION RESEARCH PROCEDURES Stage 5: Specifying the research design Stage 6: Clarifying how the project will be evaluated Stage 7: Implementing the project Stage 8: Analysing the data, drawing inferences, and evaluate the project

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001):

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001) Problem – Giving effective written feedback to students’ essays Participants: Undergraduate writing class students in a university in Japan

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001):

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001) Stage 1: His dissatisfaction in giving effective feedback Stage 2: ------------ Stage 3: Reviewing the literature Stage 4: Modifying, redefining the problem

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001):

Sample Action Research Study (Cowie. 2001) Stage 5/6: Design/Evaluation lasted 3 years 1st year: written feedback 2nd year: feedback audiotaped comments 3rd year: tapes- rewrite Stage 7: Implementing the project Stage 8: Analysing the data, drawing inferences, and evaluate the project

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible (National Projects) A team of three teachers teaching beginner level students of 11-15. Exploring:Determining an issue of interest to the group through general observation or doing some reading of recent articles/books. (a) In our class, students seem very reluctant to speak English. What can we do to elicit more oral responses from the students and increase their oral interaction in class?

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible (b) Our students don’t listen the classroom instructions well. Why is this happening and what teaching strategies could be developed? (c) We have students in our class who are very withdrawn and making slow progress. What factors may be impeding their progress and what teaching strategies can we develop to increase their confidence and motivation?

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 2. Identifying (Fact Finding by recording or documenting observations) - some sts were more withdrawn than others - they were lack of confidence - they recently migrated - their pre-migration situation had involved separation from family, or war experiences

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 3. Planning: (Plan of action) Plan: Observe the progress of the 4 most withdrawn students very closely and develop group activities which they hoped would improve the classroom dynamics and relationships between all the students.

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 4. Collecting Data: Enrichment Programme: communicative activities using games Shared lunch They had weekly meetings They observed each other and took notes They videotaped the students and transcribed

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 5. Analysing/Reflecting : (Data Analysis and interpretation) - noted the quantity and type of language used - compared the analysis with the informal observations

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible Student A produced no turns and only used gestures, pointing Student B produced only one-word utterances Student C produced mainly numbers Student D asked the most questions and challenged other students

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 6. Hypothesising/Speculating: (Drawing out hypothesis or predictions) Student A would remain withdrawn and need additional time in the same class Student D would make rapid progress and soon be amongst the top students in the class

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 7. Intervening: (Changing classroom approaches) Formal assessments Student A was located to another class with a slower learning pace Student D began to show less improvement in writing and they realised that she had problems in L1 production affecting her L2

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 8. Observing: (Observing the outcomes of the intervention and reflecting on effectiveness) Student D produced much longer piece of writing with complete complex sentences The structure and progression of the text improved

Processes of Action Research- flexible:

Processes of Action Research- flexible 9. Reporting: (Verbalising) 10. Writing: (Report/Article) 11. Presenting: (Giving more formal presentations of research)

Bond (1998):

Bond (1998) Exploring the Ideas, 2. 2 Page: 66 Read the description and specify the series of steps you would take if you were to implement an action research study.

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