Aging changes

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Aging Changes : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Aging Changes Overview of Various Body Systems & Age-related Changes Highlights of Some of the Major Disorders & Diseases

Skin – Age-related Changes : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Skin – Age-related Changes Functions of the skin: Thermoregulation Excretion of metabolic wastes Protection of underlying structures Maintenance of fluid & electrolyte balance Sensation of pain

Integumentary System : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Integumentary System Age-related changes Flattening of epidermal-dermal junction Decrease in # of melanocytes & Langerhans cells Increase in quantity & quality of elastin Decrease in # of sweat and sebaceous glands

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Integumentary – Age related changes cont’d : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Integumentary – Age related changes cont’d Decrease in subcutaneous fat and dermal blood supply Thinner dermis Slowed nail growth Changes in hair color, quantity, & distribution

Integumentary (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Integumentary (cont’d) Negative Functional Consequences

Integumentary (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Integumentary (cont’d) Risk Factors Heredity Pathologic conditions ADRs Lifestyle Environmental

Vision : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Vision Age-Related Changes Yellowing & opacity of cornea Increase in size & density of lens Decrease in pupillary size

Vision (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Vision (cont’d) Atrophy of ciliary muscle Decrease in blood supply & neurons in the retina Decreased tears Shrinkage of vitreous

Vision (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Vision (cont’d) Negative Functional Consequences

Vision (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Vision (cont’d) Negative Functional Consequences

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Visual Deficits -- Cataracts : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Visual Deficits -- Cataracts Most common disorder found in the aging eye Incidence increases with age A clouding of the normally clear & transparent lens of the eye

Cataracts -- symptoms : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cataracts -- symptoms Symptoms Causes

Cataracts : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cataracts Treatment Prognosis

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Macula located in centre of retina Leading cause of blindness in older adults Risk factors

AMD (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik AMD (cont’d) Symptoms Difficulty performing tasks that require close central vision Dark or empty area in the centre of vision Decreased color vision A “kink” in telephone poles or a “bend” in lines on road Words on a page blurred

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AMD (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik AMD (cont’d) Diagnosis Treatment

Hearing : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Hearing Age-related changes: Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear

Hearing (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Hearing (cont’d) Presbycusis: “A slowly progressive bilaterally symmetric disease in hearing that primarily affects high tones and is associated with aging.” Causes

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Smell : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Smell Taste

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Musculoskeletal : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Musculoskeletal Age-related changes Decreased muscle mass (decrease in size and # of muscle fibers) Changes to bone remodelling Bone loss

Musculoskeletal (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Musculoskeletal (cont’d) Age-related changes (cont’d) Deterioration of muscle fibrils with replacement by connective tissue & fat Deterioration of muscle cell membranes Degenerative changes in arterial cartilage

Musculoskeletal (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Musculoskeletal (cont’d) Negative Functional Consequences

Musculoskeletal Diseases : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Musculoskeletal Diseases Osteoporosis Gradual loss of bone mass Affects all individuals to some degree Women experience greater bone loss than men

Osteoporosis : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Osteoporosis Primary Osteoporosis Associated with age- and menopause-related changes Occurs more often in women age of onset is menopause Consequences can occur 10 to 20 years post-menopause

Osteoporosis (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Osteoporosis (cont’d) Risk factors: Female Increased age White or Asian Estrogen deficiency Low calcium intake Prolonged immobility

Osteoporosis (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Osteoporosis (cont’d) Risk factors (cont’d) Small bones Excessive alcohol intake Genetics Excessive use of antacids, particularly those that contain aluminum Inadequate Vit. D. intake Cigarette smoking Long-term use of certain medications

Osteoarthritis : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Osteoarthritis A nearly universal, slowly progressive degenerative condition affecting men & women Also known as degenerative joint disease Degeneration of the cartilage

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Osteoarthritis (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Osteoarthritis (cont’d) Symptoms Joint pain Stiffness Loss of motion Decreased function Deformity

Falls : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Falls Age-related functional consequence Considered predictable events of which many can be prevented Caused by a number of environmental and intrinsic factors Usually a result of a combination of factors

Falls -- Intrinsic Factors : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Falls -- Intrinsic Factors -- increased age -- functional impairment -- dizziness -- postural hypotension -- poor balance -- gait disorders -- weakness -- impaired proprioception -- cognitive impairment -- chronic illness -- depression -- risk-taking

Falls -- Extrinsic Factors : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Falls -- Extrinsic Factors -- outdoor areas -- transition areas -- poor footwear -- lack of supervision -- medications -- restraints

Cardiovascular : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cardiovascular Age-related changes Stiffening of vasculature

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57.261 2003 P. Hawranik One method used to prevent falls since time began has been to restrain the person or their limbs. Restraints

Cardiovascular : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cardiovascular * Age-related changes: Stiffening of vasculature Thicker, less elastic, more dilated veins Altered baroreflex mechanisms Changes in conduction mechanism Increase in heart weight Increased peripheral resistance

Cardiovascular (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cardiovascular (cont’d) Negative functional consequences

CV disease : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik CV disease Modifiable risk factors Hypertension Lifestyle Smoking Body weight

CV disease : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik CV disease Non-modifiable risk factors Age Gender Family history

Cardiovascular Diseases : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cardiovascular Diseases Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Coronary artery disease (CAD) Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Arteriosclerosis: general term meaning hardening of the arteriesAtherosclerosis: accumulation of fatty deposits and fibrous tissue in the walls of the arteries. : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Arteriosclerosis: general term meaning hardening of the arteriesAtherosclerosis: accumulation of fatty deposits and fibrous tissue in the walls of the arteries.

CAD : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik CAD A pathologic condition of the coronary arteries in which abnormal lipids and fibrous tissue accumulate in the arterial wall These changes lead to alterations in the blood flow to the heart muscle

Coronary Artery Disease : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Coronary Artery Disease Incidence increases with age Risk factors: Hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, elevated cholesterol

CAD : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik CAD Arterial wall consists of 3 layers Intima Media Adventitia

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) A rapidly developing vascular deficit in the brain, which causes a focal disturbance of brain function for more than 24 hours A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) lasts less than 24 hours

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) CVAs (Strokes) are the 3rd most common cause of death in industrialized countries 70% of strokes occur in people 65+

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) Risk factors Hypertension Diabetes mellitus Cardiac disease Oral contraceptives Hypotension

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) 2 main causes of CVAs: 1. Hemorrhages due to hematomas and aneurysms that bleed into the brain

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) Ischemia due to thrombosis and embolism

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (cont’d) Signs & Symptoms: Light-headedness Dizziness Headache Drop attack Hemiplegia Behavioral & Memory changes Aphasia Hemianopsia

Respiratory : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Respiratory Age-Related changes Decreased elasticity of lung tissue Increased anteroposterior diameter of chest wall Weakened respiratory muscles Decreased vital capacity Increased residual lung volume

Respiratory (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Respiratory (cont’d) Negative Functional Consequences Increased use of accessory muscles Increased energy expenditure for breathing Decreased gas exchange Diminished cough reflex Increased susceptibility to respiratory infections

Respiratory Diseases (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Respiratory Diseases (cont’d) Lower Respiratory Infections Do not display the typical symptoms!

EliminationAge- related changes : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik EliminationAge- related changes Decreased # of nephrons Decreased renal blood flow Decreased bladder capacity Relaxation of pelvic floor muscles

Elimination (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Elimination (cont’d) Decreased bladder capacity Incomplete bladder emptying Urinary urgency and frequency Nocturia

Elimination (cont’d) : 

57.261 2003 P. Hawranik Elimination (cont’d) Risk factors leading to elimination problems, such as infection or incontinence: Enlargement of the prostate Systemic diseases (dementia, dehydration, CVA) Medications Impaired mobility Unfamiliar environment Indwelling catheter

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