Adrenal Gland

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THE ADRENAL GLAND : 

THE ADRENAL GLAND Felix E. Grissom, Ph.D 2219 Adams Building Tel. 202 806-4512

The Adrenal Gland : 

The Adrenal Gland Anatomy was first described in 1563. Is located above (or attached to) the upper pole of the kidney. Is pyramidal in structure and weights about four grams. Consists of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla Activities are regulation of fluid volume and stress response

The Adrenal Gland: Anatomy : 

The Adrenal Gland: Anatomy

Adrenal Histology : 

Adrenal Histology

Adrenal Cortex : 

Adrenal Cortex Is divided into 3 zones in the adult gland: Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Fasciculata, Zona Rericularis. Is divided onto 4 zones in the fetal gland. The three zones of the permanent cortex constitutes only 20% of the fetal gland’s size. The remaining zone (fetal cortex) comprises up to 80% of gland’s size during fetal life.

Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production : 

Aldosterone, sex hormones, cortisol Synthesized from cholesterol–steroid ring Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production

Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production : 

Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production Figure 23-2: Synthesis pathways of steroid hormones

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress : 

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress Permissive effect on glucagon Memory, learning & mood Gluconeogenesis Skeletal muscle breakdown Lipolysis, calcium balance Immune depression Circadian rhythms

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress : 

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress Figure 23-4: Circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion

Control of Cortisol Secretion: Feedback Loops : 

Control of Cortisol Secretion: Feedback Loops Figure 23-3: The control pathway for cortisol External stimuli Hypothalamic Anterior Pituitary Adrenal cortex Tissues

Cortisol: Role in Diseases and Medication : 

Cortisol: Role in Diseases and Medication Use as immunosuppressant Hyperimmune reactions (bee stings) Serious side effects Hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome) Tumors (pituitary or adrenal) Iatrogenic (physician caused) Hypocortisolism (Addison's disease)

Aldosterone : 

Aldosterone Exclusively synthesized in Z. Glomerulosa Essential for life. Promotes sodium retention and Potassium elimination by the kidney. Expands ECF volume

Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion : 

Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion

Aldosterone: Role in diseases : 

Aldosterone: Role in diseases Complete failure to secrete aldosterone leads to death (dehydration, low blood volume). Hyperalsdosterone states: Contribute to hypertension associated with increased blood volume.

Adrenal Medulla: A Modified Sympathetic Ganglion : 

Sympathetic stimulation Catecholamine release to blood Epinephrine Norepinephrine Travel to: Multiple targets Distant targets Adrenal Medulla: A Modified Sympathetic Ganglion

Adrenal Medulla: A Modified Sympathetic Ganglion : 

Adrenal Medulla: A Modified Sympathetic Ganglion Figure 11-10: The adrenal medulla

Mechanism: Norepinephrine Release and Recycling : 

Mechanism: Norepinephrine Release and Recycling Figure 11-9: Norepinephrine release at a varicosity of a sympathetic neuron

Review of Efferent Pathways: Motor & Autonomic : 

Review of Efferent Pathways: Motor & Autonomic Figure 11-11: Summary of efferent pathways

Catechalomines: Activity : 

Catechalomines: Activity Stimulates the “fight or fight” reaction Increased plasma glucose levels Increased cardiovascular function Increased metabolic function Decreased gastrointestinal and genitourinary function

Activity of Epinephrine : 

Activity of Epinephrine

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