Theory of Caring ppt-final


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NUR 4344 group #4 powerpoint


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Theory of caring:

Entz, Caitlin Keller, Jana McElroy, Aubrey McMahon, Cara Sowersby, Megan Theory of caring Southwest Baptist University


Breakdown of Presentation: Theorist Overview- Janna Keller (slides 3-10) (Concepts, assumptions and background of theory) The Meta paradigms (Concepts from the theory of person, health, environment and nursing)- Aubrey McElroy (slides 11-15) A description of how the assigned theory can be used in wellness and illness care -Megan Sowersby (slides 16-19) Strengths and weakness of the Theory, Title page and Introduction –Caitlin Entz (slides 20-25) Implications to Nursing (Including areas where the theory has been used and using the theory in your own practice) –Cara McMahon (slides 26-34) Introduction

Theorist overview :

Concepts, Assumptions, And the History of the Theory Theorist overview

What is Caring:

Theory gives definition to caring: “Caring is a nurturing way of relating to a valued other toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility” (Swanson, 1991) What is Caring


Five Caring Processes: Knowing: Avoid assumptions Being With: Being there, conveying ability, sharing feelings Doing For: Comforting, anticipating, performing skillfully, protecting, preserving dignity Enabling: Informing, supporting, focusing, generating alternatives, validating Maintaining Belief: believing and holding on Background

The 7 Assumptions:

Caring is effectively demonstrated and practiced interpersonally. Caring consists of 10 Carative factors Effective caring promotes health and growth. Caring accepts people now and in the future. A caring environment offers potential for development. Caring is more “ healthogenic ” than is curing. The practice of caring is central to nursing. The 7 Assumptions

Carative Factors:

Carative Factors Foundation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values Caring-consciousness Instillation of Faith and Hope Being authentically present Enabling/sustaining a belief system Cultivation of sensitivity to yourself and others Developing person spiritual practices

Carative Factors cont.:

Carative Factors cont. Developing a helping/ trusting relationship Sustain the relationship throughout the nursing process Promotion and Acceptance of Expression Both positive and negative feelings Systematic use of Scientific Problem solving method Make decision making a group think project Encourage deductive reasoning (Schmidt, 2012)

Carative Factors cont.:

Carative Factors cont. Promotion of Interpersonal teaching/ learning Engaging in genuine teaching-learning experience Promoting a healing/nurturing environment Creating a healing environment at all levels Assistance with the Gratification of human needs Assisting with basic human needs Allowance of existential-phenomenological forces


Constantly developing and Changing “…fluid, dynamic, and undergoing constant change…” (Watson, 2012) History

Nursing theory metaparadigms:

T he concepts from the theory of person, health, environment and nursing: the meta paradigm concepts A description of how the assigned theory can be used in wellness and illness care Strengths /weaknesses of nursing theory Nursing theory metaparadigms

Four Metaparidigms of Nursing Theory: Four Metaparidigms of Nursing Theory Aubrey McElroy

PowerPoint Presentation:

“The metaparadigm is the most abstract set of central concepts for the discipline of nursing and these concepts are defined within each of the conceptual models according to the philosophy of that model” ( Alligood , 2010, p. 48).

PowerPoint Presentation:

The M etaparidims Are… Person : The recipient of nursing care. Environment : The external and internal aspects of life

Health: The holistic level of wellness that the person experiences. Nursing: The interventions of the nurse rendering care. :

Health : The holistic level of wellness that the person experiences. Nursing : The interventions of the nurse rendering care.

Use of caring theory in wellness/illness:

Megan Sowersby, RN Use of caring theory in wellness/illness

Creating a healing environment:

Healing the whole patient, physically and spiritually Caring Theory allows for nurses to connect with patients on many different levels (Swanson, 2004) Caring is more than skin deep (Mathes,2011) Caregivers and patients working together to heal patients ( Mathes , 2011) Make patient comfortable within their space ( Alligood , 2010) Creating a healing environment

Benefits for nurses:

Caring makes nurses better Personal outcomes of caring include feeling important, accomplished, purposeful, aware, integrated, whole, and confirmed (Swanson, 2004).” Benefits for nurses

Caring or curing:

Healing by curing Current ideas Leads to feelings of powerlessness Healing by caring Healing the “whole” person Caring or curing (Koopman, 2006)

Strengths of the theory:

Theory of caring “places the client in the context of the family, the community and the culture” (Current Nursing, 2012). Places the patient as the focus of practice Doesn’t put technology as focus (Current Nursing, 2012). Builds a trusting relationship with patient ( Alligood , 2010). Caring is a priority in nursing(as cited in Alligood , 2010, p. 118). Human caring promotes “health, healing and transcendence” ( Alligood , 2010, p. 120). Strengths of the theory

Strengths to the theory:

Strengths to the theory Encourages the nurse to maintain patient wholeness “Potentiate healing” ( Alligood , 2010, p. 121) “Preserves dignity” ( Alligood , 2010, p. 121). Helps achieve positive client outcomes ( Alligood , 2010, p. 121-122). Caring and attention promote a positive environment Environment affects the client’s outcome ( Alligood , 2010).

Strengths continued:

As according to Current Nursing (2012): “Logical in Nature” Rational and fairly simple “Generalizable” May be used as a guide to improve nursing practice Multicultural study using the theory of caring: Patients were more open to share feelings Patients met higher levels from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs ( Suliman , Welmann , Omer & Thomas, 2009). Strengths continued

Limitations of the theory:

“Biophysical needs” of the patient not as high of a priority (Current Nursing, 2012). The 10 carative factors mainly consist of the patient’s psychosocial needs (Current Nursing, 2012). Further research is needed to use this theory in practice (Current Nursing, 2012). Environmental Challenges ( Alligood , 2010, p. 124): “Diminishing workforce” Acutely ill patients with complex needs Economic difficulties and influences “Organization, social, and health care policies” Limitations of the theory

PowerPoint Presentation:

Limitations of the Theory Different patient perceptive of what is important Communication Barrier Lack of knowledge or understanding patient’s needs C ultures show or verbalize feelings differently ( Suliman et al., 2009)

Limitations of the theory:

Compassion satisfaction and social interaction can have a negative effect Compassion fatigue and burnout may indirectly effect nurse caring Further studies needed to correlate between compassion fatigue and caring Few researchers have looked at factors that contribute to nurse caring A nurse’s job satisfaction can affect nurse caring Less job incentives will negatively impact nurse caring Limitations of the theory ( Burtson & Stichler , 2010)

Implications to nursing:

Describe the clinical practice areas the theory has been used Clearly describe how you would use the theory in your own clinical practice, give specific examples . Implications to nursing

Things to consider prior to implications:

According to Alligood , “caring calls fourth from the practioner an authentic presence of being in the caring moment.”(2010,p.111) Being in the caring moment includes: Holism Empathy Communication Clinical Competence Technical Proficiency Interpersonal Skills - Things to consider prior to implications

The 3 Carita’s According to Watson:

1.To cherish 2.Appreciate 3.Give Special Attention -The 3 Caritas are also known as the, “complementary aspects of nursing.”(Alligood,2010,p.112) -The Caritas, “potentiate attentiveness, listening, comforting, and patience.”(Alligood,p.2010,p.112) The 3 Carita’s According to Watson

In order to provide the caring:


Where the theory of caring can be used:

This Theory is very unique because it can and should be used in any field of nursing. Alligood mentions the Theory of Caring used on an Oncology Floor and a HomeHealth setting for Midwifery. IN A CLINICAL SETTING Where the theory of caring can be used

Where is the theory being used:

There was a study done in 2008 in Saudia Arabia on 3 different medical surgical floors using the Theory of Caring. Those involved in the study invited nurses from different cultural backgrounds. (i.e. Africa and the USA) There were a total of 392 patients who were surveyed. OTHER THAN EXAMPLES IN THE BOOK? Where is the theory being used

Results from the study:

-97.2% of the patients reported an increased satisfaction with the Theory of Caring. ( Suliman et al., 2009,p.295) -The most important aspect of the Theory of Caring reported by 96.7% of the patients was humanism, faith , hope, and sensitivity. -95.7% voted that they felt the components such as support, protection, and correction was important. -95.4% voted that the Caring Theory being used met their human needs. Results from the study

10 of the most caring behaviors found:

1.Giving pain medication when needed. 2.Being respectful. 3.Punctuality of treatment and medications. 4. Offering things such as back rubs and repositioning. 5.Cleaniliness 6.Having a cheerful attitude 7.Remaining calm and positive 8.Being kind. 9.Showing consideration. 10.Listening to the patients when they needed to talk. BY PATIENTS IN THE STUDY REPORTED 10 of the most caring behaviors found

How to use the theory of caring in everyday practice:

1. Take the time to be in the moment. 2.Think about why you are there. 3.Focus on the patient’s priorities. 4.Use open ended questions. 5.Ask about the patients environment. 6.Listen. How to use the theory of caring in everyday practice



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