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The presentation can be used to take classes on Jumbled sentences which is a common type of question in most competitive exams


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PARAJUMBLED SENTENCES In these types of questions, the candidate is given a set of five or six sentences which are in jumbled order. The given sentences should be arranged properly to form a meaningful paragraph and the candidate is required to answer the questions based on the sequence formed. It is important for a candidate to rearrange the sentences or words in such a way that they should come out with a coherent and logically well connected paragraph or word order. TIPS TO SOLVE PARAJUMBLE QUESTIONS Identify Transition words Identify Personal Pronouns Mark the use of Demonstrative pronouns Use simple logic Acronym Approach Time sequence Approach Theory and Example Approach Article Approach Noun-Pronoun-Adjective (NPA) Approach Opening Closing Sentence (OCS) Approach Key Words Approach (KWA) Structure Approach – SA  Indicating Words Approach – IWA


Identify Transition words Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and connect the sentences logically. Observing the transition words found in a sentence can often give you a clue about the sentence that will come before/after that particular sentence. COMMONLY USED TRANSITION WORDS also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all, to sum-up .


Example on how to use transition words Check out the following para jumbled question Hence , the meal that is taken in the morning is breakfast . The word originated from the fact that after dinner, we don’t eat the whole night and this is a long time for the body to go without food. During day time, we keep on eating and munching after every 3-4 hours. People often ask as to why breakfast is important. But the duration between dinner and breakfast is pretty long, sometimes may be equivalent to a fast. The answer lies in the word ‘breakfast’ itself.   ANSWER: DFBCEA


Example on how to use transition words Check out the following para jumbled question But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities . So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is burn his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them . Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure . How do you do battle with your enemy ? The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy. OPTIONS: 1 . FDEBAC 2. FCABED 3. DEBACF 4. DFEBAC


Identify Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns are HE, SHE, IT, HIM, HER, THEY, YOU, YOUR etc. Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc. Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence. Often, this is a good lead to identify a link. Example on how to use personal pronouns A. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people sitting here and there and doing nothing. B. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior appointment. C. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes, procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others. D. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced to be punctual. E. Work is not intrinsically valued in India. F. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their personal matters even during office hours. 1. ECADBF      2. EADCFB      3. EADBFC      4. ABFCBE


Demonstrative Pronoun  The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase. Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences. Example A . Michael Hofman , a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint. B. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him. C. He acknowledges too “in fact he returns to the point often ” that best translators of poetry always fail at some level. D. Hofman feels passionately about his work, and this is clear from his writings. E. In terms of the gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses and street-cleaners. 1. EACDB      2. ADEBC      3. EACBD      4. DCEAB


Combining it with logic  Sometimes using logic to decide the order of sentences can yield high dividends. In the previous example, we had used logic to determine that sentence A would come before any other sentence referring Hofman . Keep your eyes open for clues such as these Example: A. The situations in which violence occurs and the nature of that violence tends to be clearly defined at least in theory, as in the proverbial Irishman’s question: “Is this a private fight or can anyone join in?” B. So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable. C. Probably the only uncontrolled applications of force are those of social superiors to social inferiors and even here there are probably some rules. D. However binding the obligation to kill, members of feuding families engaged in mutual massacre will be genuinely appalled if by some mischance a bystander or outsider is killed. 1. DABC      2. ACDB      3. CBAD      4. DBAC


Acronym Approach - Full form vs. short form   In Parajumbles we encounter full and short names or acronyms of some term or institution . Ex-World Trade Organization – WTO Dr . Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh Karl Marx – Marx President George W. Bush – President Bush or the president The rule is that if both full form as well as short form is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing short form. Time Sequence Approach Either dates or time sequence indicating words : Be aware of the time indication either by giving years – or by using time indicating words. Arrange the sentences using their proper time sequence. Here are a few time sequence indicating words – Before ,after, later, when .


Theory and Example Approach   If any sentence is working as an example – place it after the sentence for which it is working as an example, not necessarily just after – because one has to explain the idea, it is hypothesis/ theory. It should not be before the idea that it explains. Articles Approach Articles can be divided into two categories – 1. Definite (the) and 2. Indefinite (a and an). When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence. If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an .


Noun, Pronoun and Adjective (NPA) Approach  Whenever a pronoun comes – it will come in the immediate sentence containing the respective noun. i . e. A sequence can be like this Noun Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun or Noun Pronoun ………….. no pronoun Noun Pronoun i.e. the pronoun sequence will continue till it is halted by a break (i.e. a sentence containing no pronoun) then if necessary it will start with the noun again. We can’t write pronoun after a break. It is not a correct form of writing.


Opening – Closing Sentence (OCS) Approach  Let’s see the characteristics of an opening sentence It will introduce an idea in the first hand. In most of the cases it will use indefinite article a/an. i.e. if both definite and indefinite articles are used for the same noun then the sentence containing noun with indefinite article a/an will come first (may be opening sentence). The sentence can stand alone It will not have pronouns (exception: if respective noun is not mentioned anywhere). It will not have contrast words/or words indicating continuation/or words like – hence , therefore, so- etc . Key Words Approach – KWA Some words will be repeated in two consecutive sentences.: In most of the cases we repeat some important words of one sentence in the sentence that follows. Hence if you are seeing any important (not like he, she, that, is, are type) then chances are that these two sentences will be consecutive. Remember it gives you an idea that which sentences can be consecutive for example 23 or 32 but for exact order you have to look for some other clue or meaning.


Structure Approach – SA  Link the sentences logically i.e. see what is the role played by a specific sentence Premise Conclusion Support Example Continuation and then search for some proper sentence that should come before or the one which will follow . A common structure of a paragraph is from GENERAL DESCRIPTION TO SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION. Indicating Words Approach – IWA Take care of words that indicate something helpful to decide sequence.: Some words indicates some specific nature of sentences that will come before or that will follow. Look for the words like But So Therefore And However

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