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Premium member Presentation Transcript WASTE MANAGEMENT : WASTE MANAGEMENT VERMICOMPOSTIONG: Right dosage for different plants and methods of preventing Adulteration By : R.Aswath VERMICOMPOSTING (A QUICK REVIEW) : VERMICOMPOSTING (A QUICK REVIEW) It is a simple biotechnological process of composting, in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance waste conversion and produce a better end product. The earthworms consume various organic wastes and reduce its volume by 40-60%. Each earthworm consumes wastes equivalent to its body weight and produce cast equivalent to 50% of what it consumes Importance of Vermicomposting : Importance of Vermicomposting Source of plant nutrients. Rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and other micro and macronutrients. Plant growth promoting activity. E.g. Cowpea(84%) moong bean(93%). Improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Improves aeration, favorably affects soil pH, microbial population and soil enzyme activity. Importance of Vermicomposting : Importance of Vermicomposting Reduces surface runoff Increased yield Very economic and beneficial to farmers. Methods of preparation : Methods of preparation It can be prepared in a concrete tank Available bio wastes are to be collected and heaped under sun for about 7-10 days. Sprinkling of cow dung slurry may be done to retain moisture A thin layer of half decomposed cow dung(1-2 inches) is to be placed at the bottom. Place the biomass and partially decomposed cow dung layer wise. Methods of preparation : Methods of preparation The bio waste and cow dung ratio should be 60:40 on dry weight basis(as prescribed by ICRISAT) Release about 2-3 kg earthworms per ton of biomass or 100 nos. earthworm per sq. ft. area. Place a net over the tank to protect worms from birds. Sprinkle water to maintain moisture at 70-80% Sprinkling of water to be stopped when 90% bio wastes are decomposed. Harvest vermicompost by scrapping layer wise. Vermin wash : Vermin wash A liquid plant growth regulator, which contains high amounts of vitamins enzymes and hormones like auxins, gibberellins along with micro and macro nutrients. It can be used as a foliar spray Method of preparation : Method of preparation Take a bucket and a mug Set up a stop cork at the lower end of the bucket Put a layer of broken bricks, pieces of stones having thickness of 10-15 cm in the bucket. Over this put a layer of sand having thickness of 10-15 cm. Put a layer a partially decomposed dung for 30-45 cm thickness over it. Put another layer of soil of 2-3 cm thickness Method of preparation : Method of preparation Then put 100-200 nos. of earthworms in the bucket A layer of paddy straw having 6cm thickness is taken. Open the stopcock and spray water regularly for 7-8 days. After 10 days vermin wash will be produced in the bucket. Keep a bucket at bottom to collect it. Hang a pot with a bottom hole over the bucket such that water falls drop by drop. Pour 4-5 liters of water on the pot every day. Application : Application Mix I liter of vermin wash with 7-10 liters of water and spray the solution on the leaf in the evening time on the growing crops. Mix 1 liter of vermin wash with 1 liter of cow urine and 10 liters of water. Keep it overnight before spraying . Preferred Earthworm species : Preferred Earthworm species Various institutions conducted different tests to find the most efficient species of earth worm for vermicompost manufacture. The tests included the preferred bedding material to be used for multiplication, temperatures they can cope up with etc. They concluded that Eiseniae fetida and Eudrillus eugeniae are the most efficient species for vermicompost manufacture. Preferred Earthworm species : Preferred Earthworm species A mixture of tree leaves and cow dung/ cattle manure was declared as the most preferred bedding material for the earthworm multiplication. The studies also showed that Gliricidia, tobacco leaves and rabbit manures were lethal to earthworm multiplication. Presence of alkaloids and some principal organic compounds in these leaves were declared as the culprits. Different dosage for different plants : Different dosage for different plants Ref: central research institute for dryland agriculture, Hyd. Adulteration : Adulteration It is defined as “making impure by adding inferior, alien or less desirable materials or elements.” Most national regulatory programs are constructed to clearly prohibit the presence of adulterants, whether intentional or inadvertent. How to prevent adulteration in Vermicompost : How to prevent adulteration in Vermicompost There are some crude methods and some scientific methods to check adulteration. Wet sieve analysis and double sieving methods has been discussed in the report. Then a brief look into the scientific methods used to check adulteration will be discussed in this presentation. Wet sieve analysis : Wet sieve analysis Used to separate mixtures that cannot be dried. Since vermicompost is almost similar to soil, we can use this methods. The size of vermicompost particles is around 6 mm. The sieve stack is clamped to a sieve shaker. The mixture is placed at the top. A water spraying nozzle is placed at the top. Rinsing is carried out till water oozing out is clear. Ratio between amount of dried material left in the sieve to the initial amount gives the approximate purity. A sieve analyser : A sieve analyser Double sieving method : Double sieving method This is a crude method that can be used to check adulterants when the substance to be measure is in huge quantities. First we sieve the material through a ½” mesh. The filtered material is then passed through a ¼” mesh to remove the unwanted particles. Some use even a 1/8” mesh but other say its not good to use this as some useful particles are lost. For more info visit www.wormswranglers.com Lab tests to check purity : Lab tests to check purity The Australian government has proposed the following tests to be taken to check adulteration and to know the purity of the substance. This has been rechecked by some of the top scientist in New Zealand and has been approved. Various tests have been discussed in the next slide Lab tests and their limits : Lab tests and their limits pH as CaCl2 test (5-8.5 is the allowed limit) Moisture content(approximately 45 %) C: N ratio test (15:1 low and 25:1 high) Specific gravity test (0.6<V< 1) LOI 50%-60% Foreign particle (<0.5%) Electrical Conductivity (1-12 ds/m) Heavy metal contamination (below permitted maxima) Animal and plant pathogens (below permitted maxima) Why these tests? : Why these tests? We prefer a pH of around 5-8.5 because it ideally fits the soil pH. Moisture content is preferred at 45% as high moisture increases anaerobic conditions . Very low moisture decrease the rate of activity of the rate of activity of the useful microbes. A very high C: N ratio (even as much as 500:1) exposes producers who might have used fine saw sust. Why these tests? : Why these tests? Organic matter have an SG<1 and sand like particles have SG>1. Hence this exposes sand, clay and saw dust adulteration. LOI of 50-60% indicates more vegetative contents. LOI will be less if sand is present. Electrical Conductivity is done to check the presence of salts. Usually salts which are useful to plant have low EC. High EC doesn't mean that the vermicompost is useless, it indicates that further testing of the product is required. Why these tests? : Why these tests? The presence of heavy metals doesn’t effect the plants but when it enter the food chain it turn lethal. Hence it should be checked. Slide 24: THANK YOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.