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Definition :

Definition Knee replacement surgery , also known as knee arthroplasty , is regarded as a modern surgical procedure that can accurately be described as "knee resurfacing" .


PURPOSE Restoring the weight bearing facade of the knee joint To relieve pain To prevent movement disability


NEEDED PERSONS Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Post-traumatic arthritis Male smokers less likely to need surgery


WHEN ? Severe knee pain or stiffness Moderate but continuous knee pain: Chronic knee inflammation and swelling Knee deformity Nothing else worked Depression


TYPES PKR (PARTIAL KNEE REPLACEMENT) This surgery is done when only one side of the knee joint is replaced. Hence, it does not last as long as a total replacement. Less bone is removed, so the incision is smaller.

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TKR (TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT) The surgery involves the replacement of both sides of the knee joint. It is the most common procedure . Surgery lasts between one and three hours.


SURGICAL ALTERNATIVES Kneecap replacement - Patellofemora joint arthroplasty can be performed when only the kneecap is damaged. Mini-incision surgery (MIS) - O rthopedic surgeon performs a very small cut in front of the knee rather than the standard large opening. New specialized instruments are inserted in the small opening to maneuver around the tissue rather than cutting through it.

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Image-guided surgery - With the aid of computerized images, and infrared beacons, the surgeon performs the surgery from a second room (operating theater). Arthroscopic washout and debridement - An arthroscope (tiny telescope) is inserted through small incisions in the knee. The knee is then washed out with saline solution which clears away any tiny bits of bone.

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Osteotomy - This is an open operation. The shin bone is cut and re-aligned so that the patient's body weight no longer bears down on one part of the knee. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) - This procedure is when new cartilage from the patient´s own cells matures artificially in a test tube and is later introduced into the damaged area


RISKS OF SURGERY Allergic reaction to the bone cement. Continuous pain long after knee replacement. Excess bone forming around the artificial knee joint Excess scar tissue resulting in restricted movement of the knee. Fracture in the bone around the artificial joint during or after surgery. Infection of the healing wound. Instability of the knee cap

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Ligament, artery or nerve damage in the area around the knee joint. Loss of motion and stiffness. Numbness in the area around the wound scar. The kneecap becoming dislocated. Unforeseen bleeding in the knee joint. Wearing down of implant surfaces - components may loosen.

Recovering at home:

Recovering at home Take iron supplements to aid wound healing and muscle strength Do everything possible to avoid a fall, which might mean further surgery Not bend down and lift heavy things, at least during the first few weeks Not to soak the wound until the scar is completely healed, otherwise there is a serious risk of infection Not to stay standing still for long periods. The ankles might swell

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Make sure the shower has a secure handrail Make sure there are no loose carpet and wrinkly mats around the house, to prevent falls Follow all the instructions carefully for all medications Follow the medical team's advice on exercises to ensure rapid and proper mobility Have a footstool so that the affected leg may be elevated

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Look out for any signs and symptoms of infections, blood clots or pulmonary embolism If possible, have the bedroom downstairs When showering, use a stable, non-slippery bench or chair Use crutches, a walking stick, or a walker until the knee is strong enough to take your body weight

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