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Premium member Presentation Transcript EMBEDDED SYSTEM: EMBEDDED SYSTEM SUBMITED BY : M.ASIF MOHAMMEDPowerPoint Presentation: Contents: Definition Of Embedded System History Characteristics User Interference Processors In Embedded system Peripherals Tools Debugging Realibility Simple Control Loop Vector Interrupt Control Loop Multi Tasking Scheduling Algorithm *Non-Preemptive Multitasking * Preemptive Multitasking Kernels *Micro Kernels *Exo KernelsPowerPoint Presentation: Definition Of Embedded System: Embedded system is an electronic system which contains microprocessor , microcontrollers hidden in the computer system Embedded system is defined as a combination of hardware, software that will perform dedicated functionPowerPoint Presentation: Types Of Embedded System: 1.Small Scale Embedded System 2.Medium Scale Embedded System 3.Sophisticated Embedded System Small Scale Embedded System: * They a re designed with a single 8bit or 16bit microcontroller *The main program tools are a)editor b) asssembler c)cross assembler Medium Scale Embedded System: *They are designed with a single 16bit or 32bit microcontroller *The main program are a) c b) c++ c) java Sophisticated embedded system: * They are designed with a single a 32bitPowerPoint Presentation: History: The first recognizably modern embedded system was the Apollo guidance computer Developed by charles strak draper at the MIT instrumentation laboratory .It was considered as The riskiest item in the Apollo project Then autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the minute man missile was released in 1961 It was built by transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory At last the D-17 was replaced with the IC’s of quad NAND gate to permiting the use in Commercial products. The first micro processor the intel 4004 was designed for calculator and other small systemsPowerPoint Presentation: characteristics: 1.Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task rather than be a general purpose computer for multiple tasks. 2.Embedded systems are not always stand alone devices . Many embedded systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. 3.The software written for embedded systems is also called as firmware and is stored in read-only memory or Flash memory.PowerPoint Presentation: User Interference: The interaction between the users and the embedded system is done by mouse, keyboard , screen and joy stick buttons ……. Processors In Embedded system : In Embedded system processors are classified in two types 1.micro processor 2.micro controller The some other processors are: ARM,AVR,AVR32,68K,SuperH,TLCS-47, TLCS-870 etc For example : ARM7 TDMIS processor is a32 bit Embedded RISC processor . It provides system designers with the flexibility necessary to build Embedded devices requiring small size ,low power and high performancePowerPoint Presentation: Peripherals: Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI):RS232 , RS-422, RS-485 Synchronous Serial Communication Interface : SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface) Universal Serial Bus(USB) Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.) Timers: PLL (s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC) Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as:PowerPoint Presentation: Tools: As with other software, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded system software. However, they may also use some more specific tools Custom compilers and linkers may be used to improve the usage of the particular hardware. In embedded system digital signal processing is to make mathematical functionsPowerPoint Presentation: Debugging: Debugging is process of error handling and rectifying it. 1.Desktop debugging 2.Source level debugging 1.Desktop debugging: In desktop debugging , a piece of software runs on a desktop machine to debug the system. 2.Source level debugging: InSource level debugging, the debugger refers addressing variables by their source name instead of memory addressPowerPoint Presentation: Realibility: Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for years without errors Some of the techniques used in realibility are : 1.watchdog timer that resets the computer 2. Designing with a Trusted Computing Base (TCB) ensures a highly secure & reliable system environmentPowerPoint Presentation: Embedded software architectures: Simple Control Loop: In this design, the software simply has a loop. The loop calls subroutines, each of which manages a part of the hardware or software. Vector interrupt controller: The VIC is an advanced microcontroller bus architecture(AMBA). The VIC provides an interface to the interrupt system and improves interrupt catencyPowerPoint Presentation: Multi Tasking Scheduling Algorithm: *Preemptive Multitasking *Non-Preemptive Multitasking Preemptive Multitasking: Low priority Task Running Interrupt service Routine High-priority Task Running Low-priority Task Running ISR Makes High Priority Task Ready-To Run Low priority task release the cpu In premptive multitasking when low priority task is running and USR makes high priority task ready to run but in this high priority task will not run and low priority task will continued to run and after the completing of low prioriy task the high priority task will get runPowerPoint Presentation: Non-Preemptive Multitasking: Low-priority Task Running Interrupt service Routine High-priority Task Running Low-priority Task Running ISR Makes High Priority Task Ready-To Run High priority task release the cpu In non-preemptive multi tasking , the tasks cooperate with each other to get their share of the cpu time In this when low priority task is running and ISR makes high priority task ready to run . then the low priority task stops its running and high priority task running get completed and then the low priority task get continue to run where it get stopPowerPoint Presentation: Kernels : 1.Microkernels 2.exokernels Microkernels : In general , microkernel succeed when the task switching and inter task communiation is fsst,and fail when they are slow Exokernels : it communicate efficiency by normal subroutine calls The kernel is the part of a multitasking system responsible for a management of tasks and communication between the taskPowerPoint Presentation: Additional software components: Embedded systems have additional upper layer software components . This components consists of networking protocol stacks like CAN,TCP/IP,FTP,HTTP And HTTPS @Anupam Basu 16 Application areas: Consumer electronics Smart buildings Fabrication equipmentPowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU FOR ALL You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.