CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING – Unit V

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CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING-System Development:

CLIENT SERVER COMPUTING-System Development 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET

Outline:

Outline Training Training advantages of GUI Application System Administrator training Database Administrator training End-user training The future of client server Computing Enabling Technologies The transformational system 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 2

Training advantages of GUI Application:

Training advantages of GUI Application A major training benefit of the graphical user interface (GUI) is the opportunity to provide an intuitive interface. Each time standard functions are used in a GUI platform, they are invoked in the same way. Each new business application does not require user retraining in the use of help, error correction, menu navigation, or security measures. The basic business process functionality to view, add, change, and delete information appears and works consistently from application to application. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 3

Training advantages of GUI Application-Cont’d:

Training advantages of GUI Application-Cont’d These processes are implemented as part of an organizational "view" implemented with a systems development environment (SDE) and incorporated into every application.  Because of GUIs, users can be trained once to properly use these features, and this knowledge can be reused for every new application. With standardized training on these fundamentals, new applications need only provide training on the new business processes. This will reduce costs, reduce stress on trainees, and decrease the time it takes to move new applications into production.  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 4

Reduced Training Costs :

Reduced Training Costs  Forrester Research predicts that the use of GUIs will cut user training costs by 30 to 40 percent. In the Los Angeles Fire Department project, the department has determined that training time has been reduced from the previous 10 weeks to only 4 weeks. Chief Rudd credits this to the ease of use provided by the GUI compared to the previous character mode implementation.  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 5

Reduced Training Costs :

Reduced Training Costs  Adding a common front end to a mixture of existing applications dramatically reduced training costs for a major telephone company in another project. A reduction in staff turnover, attributed to the ease of use, further reduced training costs because of fewer new employees. In fast food restaurants, staff turnover may exceed 300 percent per year. Training costs could overwhelm profitability. The use of ergonomically engineered GUIs, with touch screen interfaces, enables new staff to be trained in less than one hour.  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 6

Reduced Training Costs :

Reduced Training Costs  Although end-user training is the most costly and therefore receives the most benefit from the use of GUIs in client/server computing, there is still a need to train the technical support organization. Without proper training the system administrators, systems programmers, technicians, and developers will not build effective systems or support the system's users effectively. It costs about $300 to install the networking components to set up a workstation, but the salary cost for the maintenance staff can be $1,000 per machine if LAN Administration is done on a "learn as you do it" basis.3  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 7

Systems Administrator Training :

Systems Administrator Training  LAN Administration  WAN Issues  Operating System Issues  PC/Workstation Issues  Application Issues 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 8

LAN Administration :

LAN Administration  The first step in system administration training is to understand the organization's conventions . Naming, security, help procedures, and so on must be understood and implemented uniformly between applications and products. The administrator should receive thorough software product training. Word processors, spreadsheets, databases, graphics, and other complex products should be installed with uniform default settings across all sites Disk space management is an important issue for the administrator. Products such as Network General's Sniffer enable LAN administrators to monitor the network for capacity and problems without the need for detailed knowledge of the applications. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 9

WAN Issues :

WAN Issues  Administrators must be trained in the software and in procedures to handle network definition, network management, and remote backup and recovery Many of the WAN problems appear as unrelated incidents to remote users who don't understand the WAN issues. It is imperative to train the WAN administrator in the use of remote management tools. Tools such as IBM's NetView and Cabletron's Spectrum enable administrators to remotely manage the LAN-to-WAN environment needed for many client/server applications.  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 10

WAN Issues -Cont’d:

WAN Issues -Cont’d Training developers in WAN issues is also critical because of the WAN's impact on communication issues. Where data is stored and how it is to be retrieved must be considered in the development of applications. The conversations will be quite different for a WAN rather than a LAN.  WANs are particularly complex to understand and optimize because of the many configuration options available.   1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 11

WAN Issues -Cont’d:

WAN Issues -Cont’d Training WAN administrators to understand all of the options available to establish an optimal topology is more expensive than many organizations can justify. Tools such as IBM's NetView, Sunsoft's Sun/Connect, HP's Openview, and various products from BBN and Openvision can be used to provide recommendations and assessments to the WAN administrator. Training in the tools is frequently more valuable than extensive training in the WAN technologies. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 12

Operating System Issues :

Operating System Issues  Administrators must be expertly trained in the operating system (OS) used by clients and servers in the client/server application. Networks frequently run several OSs—such as DOS, Windows 3.x, Windows NT, OS/2, and UNIX—within the supported client/server implementations. This diversity of platforms challenges the administrators to have expertise not only in the particulars of a single OS but also in the interaction of the various OSs. New releases of OSs introduce additional challenges as new interactions and incompatibilities appear. In the UNIX arena, an additional challenge arises when the hardware platforms are not homogeneous and several UNIX derivatives, each with minor variations, are being used simultaneously 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 13

PC/Workstation Issues:

PC/Workstation Issues Administrators must be trained in the basic hardware components of the workstation. Many problems that occur in the field can be fixed remotely by a user with direction from the remote administrator. Common problems such as unplugged devices, loose cards, or lost configurations, can often be repaired by a user with some willingness to follow directions. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 14

PC/Workstation Issues:

PC/Workstation Issues Support personnel should be trained in software to support remote PC/workstation logins. Application Issues Administrators must be well-versed in the application to enable rapid and effective communication with remote users. They should be trained in both the functionality and technology of the applications. It is common to designate a sophisticated user as the support administrator for an application 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 15

Application Issues:

Application Issues Administrators must be well-versed in the application to enable rapid and effective communication with remote users. They should be trained in both the functionality and technology of the applications. It is common to designate a sophisticated user as the support administrator for an application. Most problems are related to applications, the application support administrator should be an expert in how business users utilize the application. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 16

Database Administrator Training:

Database Administrator Training Design issues are particularly critical here because performance can be dramatically affected by the location of data. Remote control of utility functions is mandatory, and training existing staff to handle these procedures presents real challenges, especially when they continue to operate existing systems. Once again, the use of SDE-developed standard procedures that are reused between applications will allow this training to be provided once and applied to all new client/server applications. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 17

End-User Training:

End-User Training End users should be trained once in the user interface standards defined by the organization as part of the SDE. The best time to provide this training is in conjunction with the first applications. It is likely that users will already know how to use a workstation for personal productivity. The new standards will not be dramatically different from those currently used unless a very different technology is being employed. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 18

Workstation Operations:

Workstation Operations It is important to train in the shared use of the workstation for personal productivity and client/server application functionality. Users will be very unhappy if their existing valued capabilities are lost as a result of the new system. This training should include such standard features as security, help, navigation (how to get from one function to the next), table management and scrolling, as well as standard business processes such as viewing, adding, changing, and deleting information 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 19

The Future of Client/Server Computing Technologies:

The Future of Client/Server Computing Technologies Enabling Technologies Expert Systems  Geographic Information Systems  Point-of-Service (POS ) Imaging  Electronic Document Management—Multimedia Full-Text Retrieval  The transformational system The Challenge of the 1990s  Emergency Public Safety  Electronic Data Interchange  Financial Analysis  1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 20

Expert Systems:

Expert Systems The main business advantage of using expert systems technology is the opportunity to protect business know-how. Many organizations are severely short of experts. With the aging of the work force, and as a large number of experienced workers retire together, this shortage will become worse. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 21

Expert Systems:

Expert Systems Encapsulating the rules that describe an expert's response to a business situation into a stored electronic rules base, provides the substantive opportunity for higher productivity and reduced costs as these stored rules are consistently applied. In applications using expert systems products, such as those from Trinzic Corp., Nexpert , and others, objects are created that include this expert knowledge. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 22

Geographic Information Systems:

Geographic Information Systems From a technological perspective, GISs must operate on standard technologies, integrate with the organization SDE, and directly access the organizational databases. Conceptually, GISs enable users to store virtually unlimited geographic information as a series of layers. Some layers, such as street layouts, compose the base map . Other layers, such as wetlands and subterranean water sources, are thematic layers that serve a specific, sometimes narrow purpose. A GIS user can custom design a printed map to fill a particular need by simply selecting the relevant layers. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 23

Geographic Information Systems:

Geographic Information Systems Selecting the street layer and the wetlands layer would produce a map of wetlands and their relationship to the streets. Selecting the subterranean water sources layer and the wetlands layer would show the wetlands. Each line, curve, and symbol in a map is fixed in space by a series of numbers, called the spatial data . Spatial data describes the precise positioning of map objects in three-dimensional space 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 24

Geographic Information Systems:

Geographic Information Systems The GIS database is related to attributes stored in other databases that provide considerably more value in combination. For example, combining the voters list with the street maps allows polling booths to be located with easy access for all and ensures that no natural or artificial barriers are blocking the way 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 25

Point-of-Service (POS) :

Point-of-Service (POS)  Point-of-service (POS) technologies—traditionally known as point-of-sale technologies—are ever-present. Every restaurant, supermarket, most department stores, and even auto service stations use POS technology at the site for pricing, staff management, accounting, product distribution, and inventory control. POS is one of the most widely installed examples of client/server technology. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 26

Point-of-Service (POS) :

Point-of-Service (POS)  Implementations use an intelligent cash register, bar code scanner, scale, or gas pump as the client working with a UNIX or OS/2 server. These applications have a specific set of characteristics; namely, they run in a large number of distributed sites and are frequently used by users with little training in a business environment demanding rapid change. There is a growing demand for POSs, such as applications, to improve service and reduce costs. Self-service customs and excise processing, postal counters, help services, libraries, and even vending machines are demanding the processing power and ease of use that can be provided by this technology. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 27

Imaging:

Imaging Imaging is the conversion of documents from a physical medium (for example, paper) to a digital form where they can be manipulated by computers The business process should strive to maintain and use information in machine-readable form from the earliest moment. Optical character recognition (OCR) is an existing technology that offers powerful capabilities to convert the image of typed information on a form to text. Intelligent character recognition (ICR) enables handwritten input to be recognized 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 28

Imaging:

Imaging 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 29

Electronic Document Management—Multimedia :

Electronic Document Management—Multimedia  The use of multimedia technologies can be an effective means of improving attentiveness to the training. This technology enables trainers to illustrate explanations of the business process with sound and video examples at the request of the trainee. When the user feels confident, he or she can recall the production environment and proceed. Integrating this facility into the SDE can dramatically reduce training costs for organizations with new employees or an application with casual users 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 30

Electronic Document Management—Multimedia:

Electronic Document Management—Multimedia Information is entered into the system from a scanner. The scanner, similar to a fax machine, converts the paper image into digital form. This image is stored on a permanent medium, such as a magnetic or optical disk. Information must be indexed on entry so it can be located after it is stored. The index usually is stored in a relational database on a high-speed magnetic disk. Access to stored images is always initiated by an index search. High-resolution screens enable users to view the images after storage. Laser printers are used to recreate the image on paper as required. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 31

Full-Text Retrieval :

Full-Text Retrieval  . The major hardware and software technologies that have made this technology production viable are Optical Character Recognition (OCR), ICR, optical storage, powerful workstations, large D-RAM, as well software algorithms, and high-resolution monitors. OCR and ICR technologies convert the paper documents to text files. Companies such as Colera provide software to convert typewritten documents directly into WordPerfect format. Recent improvements in these algorithms provide support for most major fonts 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 32

Transformational Systems:

Transformational Systems As the world economy becomes more integrated, goods and services are provided by companies and individuals from all parts of the world. Consumers can and will buy the most cost-effective quality product and service available. This substantially increases the necessity for organizations to demonstrate their value. Western economies, with their higher salaries and cost of plant, are particularly threatened by this trend 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 33

The Challenge of the 1990s  :

The Challenge of the 1990s  Educated staff are willing to accept decision-making responsibility and are better able to adapt to change. The challenge is to find ways in which technology can enable the West to capitalize on these advantages . Many organizations and industries are finding solutions that use client/server technology to truly transform the working environment. The following are brief examples of business solutions and technology partnerships that apply this technology to fundamentally change the business process. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 34

Emergency Public Safety Emergency (E911) :

Emergency Public Safety Emergency (E911 ) Emergency Public Safety Emergency (E911) dispatch operators are responsible for sending the right emergency response vehicles to an incident as quickly as possible and at the same time dealing with the crisis being reported over the telephone. This functionality must be provided 24-hours-per-day, 365-days-per-year, with the maximum possible performance. As you can imagine, most 911 callers are in a state of anxiety. The telephone switch provides the caller's telephone number and address to the dispatcher workstation. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 35

Financial Analysis:

Financial Analysis Financial analysts are overloaded with data. It is impossible for them to process all the data received. They must read it, looking for gems of information. Powerful workstation technology enables these analysts to specify personal filters to be applied against the data in order to present only information of likely interest and to present it in order of most likely interest. These filters provide search criteria specific to each analyst and provide only information satisfying the filter criteria to the analyst. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 36

Financial Analysis:

Financial Analysis Improvements in technology enable the data to be scanned in real time. Alerts can be generated to the analyst whenever a significant event is detected. In this way, the analyst's job is transformed. He or she is now concerned with developing the rules to drive the filters and with understanding how to react to the significant events that are detected. Meaningful and useful data is available to support the analyst's decision making. He or she has more time to make informed decisions 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 37

Electronic data interchange (EDI):

Electronic data interchange (EDI) Electronic data interchange (EDI) technology enables unrelated organizations to conduct their business computer to computer without the need to use the same computer applications or technology in all locations. Combining just in time (JIT) manufacturing with EDI truly transforms the process A salesperson accepts an order through a laptop computer system. Using the electronic mail facilities of the organization, the order is shipped to the order entry system. The component parts are determined, and electronic purchase orders are generated to each supplier. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 38

Electronic data interchange (EDI):

Electronic data interchange (EDI) The EDI link routes the order, which is processed by the supplier's order system. An EDI link is used to validate the purchaser's credit worthiness. The paperless invoice is sent by way of EDI back to the purchaser. When it is time for payment, an EDI link is used to generate the electronic funds transfer (EFT) to pay. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 39

Electronic data interchange (EDI):

Electronic data interchange (EDI) With EDI, a single entry by the person closest to the customer causes the facilities of the manufacturer and its suppliers to schedule appropriate production, shipping, and billing. The maximum possible time is allowed for all parties to process the order, thus reducing their need to carry inventory. A further advantage comes when production is driven by orders, because only those products that will actually be sold are manufactured. Manufacturers are able to offer more flexibility in product configuration, because they are manufacturing to order. The use of EDI standards allows organizations to participate in this electronic dialog regardless of differences among their individual technologies or application systems. 1/23/2016 DEPT OF CSE,SKCET 40

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