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Memory :

Memory Ashu Chhabra Regd No 10803268

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Memory is the ability of organism to store retain recall information.

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Human memory, like memory in a computer, allows us to store information for later use. In order to do this, however, both the computer and we need to master three processes involved in memory. Encoding- It is the process we use to transform information so that it can be stores. For a computer this means transferring data into 1’s and 0’s. It means transforming the data into a meaningful form such as an association with an existing memory, an image, or a sound(in humans).

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Storage- Which simply means holding onto the information. For this to take place, the computer must physically write the 1’ and 0’s onto the hard drive. It is very similar for us because it means that a physiological change must occur for the memory to be stored. Retrieval – It is the final process which is bringing the memory out of storage and reversing the process of encoding. In other words, return the information to a form similar to what we stored.

Physiology of memory:

Physiology of memory Brain areas such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, the striatum, or the mammillary bodiesare thought to be involved in specific types of memory. The hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learning, while the amygdala is thought to be involved in emotional memory. Non decelarative memory is stored in cerebellum. Much about physiology is not yet known.

Types of Memory:

Types of Memory Sensory Memory Short term Memory (STM) Long term Memory (LTM)

Sensory Memory:

Sensory Memory It refers to the information we receive through the senses. This memory is very brief lasting only as much as a few seconds.

Short Term Memory (STM):

Short Term Memory (STM) When information from sensory memory is transferred to consciousness or awareness than this is called as STM. STM can last longer than sensory memory (up to 30 sec.) but still it has very limited capacity. Working Memory – When we continuously focus on a material for longer than STM

Storage of stm:

Storage of stm STM is stored in Hippocampus region of brain

What happens when our short term memory is full and another bit of information enters? :

What happens when our short term memory is full and another bit of information enters? Displacement - means that the new information will push out part of the old information. Suddenly some one says the area code for that phone number and almost instantly you forget the last two digits of the number. We can further sharpen our short term memory skills, however, by mastering chunking and using rehearsal (which allows us to visualize, hear, say, or even see the information repeatedly and through different senses

Why we rember and what we remember :

Why we rember and what we remember There are six reasons why information is stored in our STM

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primacy effect - information that occurs first is typically remembered better than information occurring later.  When given a list of words or numbers, the first word or number is usually remembered due to rehearsing this more than other information. recency effect - often the last bit of information is remembered better because not as much time has past; time which results in forgetting. distinctiveness - if something stands out from information around it, it is often remembered better.  Any distinctive information is easier to remember than that which is similar, usual, or mundane.

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frequency effect - rehearsal, as stated in the first example, results in better memory.  Remember trying to memorize a formula for your math class.  The more you went over it, the better you knew it. associations - when we associate or attach information to other information it becomes easier to remember.  Many of us use this strategy in our professions and everyday life in the form of acronyms. reconstruction - sometimes we actually fill in the blanks in our memory.  In other words, when trying to get a complete picture in our minds, we will make up the missing parts, often without any realization that this is occurring.

Long term memory ltm:

Long term memory ltm LTM is most similar to the permanent storage of a computer. Unlike the other two types, LTM is relatively permanent and practically unlimited in terms of its storage capacity. Its been argued that we have enough space in our LTM to memorize every phone number in the U.S. and still function normally in terms of remembering what we do now. Obviously we don’t use even a fraction of this storage space

Types of ltm :

Types of ltm Declarative memory – for memories , events and facts . Semantic memory- word meanings, concepts and ability to do math. Episodic memory-events and situations. Non declarative memory-memories due to extensive practice , conditioning or habits.

memory disorders :

memory disorders Everyday Memory Problems Traumatic Brain Injury Neurodegenerative Disease


EVERYDAY MEMORY DISORDERS The everyday experience of memory problems is the problem of failed recall, forgetting. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is particularly frustrating because the person trying to remember feels that the memory is available. In physical terms your neurons are firing, but your receptors aren't catching. Failing to remember something in the situation in which it would have been useful leads to regret.

Traumatic brain injury:

Traumatic brain injury This can be due to the accident resulting in the damage of brain tissue

Neurodegenerative disease:

Neurodegenerative disease Many neurodegenerative diseases can cause memory loss. Some of the most prevalent (and consequently, most intensely researched) include Alzheimer's Disease , Dementia, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Parkinson's Disease. None act specifically on memory; instead memory loss is often a casualty of generalized neuronal deterioration. Currently, these illnesses are irreversible, but research into stem cells, psychopharmacology, and genetic engineering hold much promise