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SOURCES OF WASTES : SOURCES OF WASTES HOUSEHOLDS BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIES Slide 4: AGRICULTURE HOTELS TYPES OF SOLID WASTE : TYPES OF SOLID WASTE Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: Household waste or municipal waste: includes food, paper, cardboard, plastic, textiles, leather, glass, metal, ashes, electronics waste etc. Industrial waste: includes toxic chemicals, oil, debris from construction site, packaging waste, ashes etc. Biomedical waste or hospital waste: medicine bottles, expired medicines, syringes, medical instruments such as scissors, blades etc. Slide 6: Agriculture waste: includes pesticides, crops, water coming from the fields also consists of small amount of toxic chemicals. Nuclear waste: includes radioactive substances coming from reactors, fuel (uranium, thorium, plutonium etc). Its highly dangerous and requires proper disposal. Hazardous waste: includes toxic chemical, acids, corrosive, ignitable and reactive materials, gases etc. CLASSIFICATION OF WASTES ACCORDING TO THEIR PROPERTIES : CLASSIFICATION OF WASTES ACCORDING TO THEIR PROPERTIES Bio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others) Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, containers and others) SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION : SOLID WASTE COMPOSITION EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED PROPERLY : 10 EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED PROPERLY Affects our health Affects our socio-economic conditions Affects our coastal and marine environment Affects our climate EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE : EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE When hazardous wastes are released in the air, water, or on the land, they can spread or contaminate our environment. When rain falls on soil at a waste site, it can carry hazardous waste deeper into the ground and the can pollute groundwater. Every year, major health problems result from hazardous waste like cancer, repertory condition, heart diseases etc, so it required proper disposal. Slide 12: 12 SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE : 13 SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Sources of hazardous wastes include: Research and academic laboratories Shops and repair facilities Art and theater departments Facility maintenance and grounds Power Plant operations Experimental Farm operations CHARACTERISTICS : CHARACTERISTICS Hazardous Wastes are defined as wastes that exhibit the following characteristics: Ignitable Corrosive Reactivity Toxic 14 UNIVERSAL HAZARDOUS WASTES : 15 UNIVERSAL HAZARDOUS WASTES Universal wastes include the following materials that are commonly found in the workplace Batteries Fluorescent lamps Pesticides Thermometers (containing mercury) Used oil SOLUTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE : SOLUTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The government can increase regulations on the disposal of hazardous waste. Provide incentives to create less waste. Industries can break down chemical compounds into less dangerous forms. Store waste in ways that protect the environment from being exposed to the waste. Recycle if possible. Minimize and prevention. GENERATION OF MSW(MT/Y) : GENERATION OF MSW(MT/Y) METHODS OF DISPOSALS : METHODS OF DISPOSALS These are the following methods for disposal of the solid waste. LAND FILLS INCINARATION BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING RECYCLING OCEAN DUMPING PLASMA GASSIFICATION SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY : SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY LAND FILL : LAND FILL It is the most traditional method of waste disposal. Waste is directly dumped into disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. Disposed waste is compacted and covered with soil to prevent vermin and wind-blown litter. Gases generated by the decomposing waste materials are often burnt to generate power. It is generally used for domestic waste. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES Landfill site is a cheap waste disposal option for the local council. Jobs will be created for local people. Lots of different types of waste can be disposed of by landfill in comparison to other waste disposal methods. The gases given off by the landfill site could be collected and used for generating power. DISADVANTAGES : DISADVANTAGES The site will look ugly while it is being used for landfill. Dangerous gases are given off from landfill sites that cause local air pollution and contribute to global warming. Local streams could become polluted with toxins seeping through the ground from the landfill site. Once the site has been filled it might not be able to be used for redevelopment as it might be too polluted. LAND REQUIRED FOR DISPOSAL OF MSW : LAND REQUIRED FOR DISPOSAL OF MSW EMMISION OF METHANE FROM LANDFILL : EMMISION OF METHANE FROM LANDFILL INCINERATION : INCINERATION Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of solid waste at 1000C. waste materials are converted into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and gases due to organic waste. the heat generated by incineration is used to generate electric power. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES Minimum of land is needed compared to other disposal methods. The weight of the waste is reduced to 25% of the initial value. No risk of polluting local streams and ground waters as in landfills. Incineration plants can be located close to residential areas. Gases are used to generate power. DISADVANTAGES : DISADVANTAGES Expensive Required skilled labour. The chemicals that would be released into the air could be strong pollutants and may destroy ozone layer (major disadvantage). high energy requirement Slide 29: INCINERATION PLANT OBERHAUSEN, GERMANY OCEAN DUMPING : OCEAN DUMPING Ocean dumping is the dumping or placing of materials in the ocean, often on the continental shelf. A wide range of materials is involved, including garbage, construction and demolition debris, sewage sludge, dredge material, waste chemicals, and nuclear waste. Sometime hazardous and nuclear waste are also disposed but these are highly dangerous for aquatic life and human life also. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES Convenient Inexpensive Source of nutrients for fishes and marine mammals. Vast amount of space is available. All type of wastes are disposed. DISADVANTAGES : DISADVANTAGES There are three main direct public health risks from ocean dumping: (1) occupational accidents, injuries, and exposures (2) exposure of the public to hazardous or toxic materials washed up on beach sand. (3) human consumption of marine organisms that have been contaminated by ocean disposal. Highly dangerous for aquatic life. BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING : BIOLOGICAL REPROCESSING Materials such as plants, food scraps, and paper products can be decomposed into the organic matter. The organic matter that is produced from this type of recycling can then be used for such things as landscaping purpose or agricultural uses. Usually this method of recycling is done by putting the materials in a container and let to stay there until it decomposes. RECYCLING : RECYCLING It is basically processing or conversion of a waste item into usable forms. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles, and electronics. But recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material. For many items like plastic bags, plastic wrap, yogurt cups, margarine container etc. recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES Reduction of air and water pollution. Reduction in the release of harmful chemicals and greenhouse gases from rubbish. Saves space required as Waste Disposal Landfill. Reduce financial expenditure in the economy. it helps in conserving a lot of energy resources like petroleum and coal deposits. SAVING THROUGH RECYCLING : SAVING THROUGH RECYCLING When aluminum is recycled - considerable saving in cost. Making paper from waste saves 50% energy. Every tone of recycled glass saves energy equivalent to 100 liters of oil. Recycling about 54 kg of newspaper will save one tree. PROCESS OF RECYCLING : PROCESS OF RECYCLING COLLECTION: The first step required for recycling is collecting recyclable materials from communities. Today many major cities and larger communities offer a curbside pick up service for recyclable materials. SORTING: The second step involves processing the recyclable materials. This includes sorting the materials into groups, cleaning them and getting them ready to be sold to manufacturers who will turn the materials into new products. Slide 40: MANUFACTURING: It is the third step in the recycling process. The collected material is sent to industries those convert them into new products. PURCHASING: The last step involves the purchasing of recycled products. When consumers purchase products that have been made with post consumer material the recycling process has been completed and then can be repeated. RECYCLING NOT A SOLUTION TO ALL PROBLEMS! : RECYCLING NOT A SOLUTION TO ALL PROBLEMS! Recycling is not a solution to managing every kind of waste material For many items recycling technologies are unavailable or unsafe In some cases, cost of recycling is too high. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? : 42 WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? PLASMA GASSIFICATION : PLASMA GASSIFICATION Plasma gasification is a new garbage disposal solution using plasma technology. Uses electrical energy and the high temperatures (4000°C to over 7000°C) created by an plasma torches. Almost completely breaks down the waste into syngas which are used to generate electricity. The remaining material (slag) is used to produced material for building projects. WHAT IS PLASMA? : WHAT IS PLASMA? Fourth state of matter. It is an ionized gas at high temperature, capable of conducting current due to free electrons. Created by applying an electric arc to a low- pressure gas. Lightning is an example from nature. PLASMA TORCHES : PLASMA TORCHES Consists of a tungsten rod (cathode) and a water-cooled copper (anode). Shaped in the form of a nozzle. Gas is introduced in the electrode gap and a dc arc is established between the electrodes to create plasma. HOW PLASMA GASSIFIRE WORKS? : HOW PLASMA GASSIFIRE WORKS? Slide 47: CONVEYER SYSTEM: Garbage is loaded on the conveyer belt. Pushes into the pretreatment system by means of plunger. PRETREATMENT MECHANISM: Use to make the entire system more efficient. use grinders or crushers to reduce the size of the pieces of waste. plasma torch can break down the smaller pieces faster. FURNACE : FURNACE Furnaces have an airlock system to allow garbage to come in while preventing the hot gases from escaping into the atmosphere. Have multiple torches to break down all the matter into gases and slug. Also features a drainage system to tap off the slag and a vent system to vent out the gases. to withstand the intense heat, furnaces are lined with refractory material and often have a water-cooling system as well. SLUG DRAINAGE : SLUG DRAINAGE Molten slag at the bottom of the furnace and helps in maintaining the high temperature inside the chamber. Occasionally slag must be drained from the furnace. slag drains away from the furnace and cools in a separate chamber. Slug is also used to produce some building materials. Slide 52: MOLTEN SLAG DRAINING FROM A PLASMA FURNACE AFTER BURNING : AFTER BURNING Gases can pass through a secondary chamber where natural gas flames combust any remaining organic material in the gases. These extremely hot gases then pass through a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) system. where they heat water to form steam. This steam then turns a steam turbine to create electricity. BYPRODUCTS OF THE PROCESS : BYPRODUCTS OF THE PROCESS SYNGAS: A mixture of several gases but mainly comprises hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Can be used as a fuel source. SLUG: Solid byproduct from the gasification process. The weight of the slag is about 20 percent of the weight of the original waste. The volume of the slag is about 5 percent that of the original waste volume SUMMERY : SUMMERY Solid waste is hazardous to health so it has to be handled carefully and disposed properly in order to protect our health and to maintain good environment. PREPARED BY:ASHISH KAMALBTECH CIVILNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT. : PREPARED BY:ASHISH KAMALBTECH CIVILNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SURAT. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.