MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR BROILER CHICKENS AND LAYERS.ppt2003

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MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH PRACTICES IN BROILER Submitted by: Ashweeni kumar singh 2006V15B

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Poultry Industry in India Fastest growing industrial/farming sector. Growth of 12-15 % per annum. Total turnover of Rs.300 billion in 2005. In India, its practice has undergone a metamorphosis in past 40 years, from a small backyard operation, to well structured, market-oriented enterprise of today. Over 1.5 Lac poultry farmers in India. 60 billion eggs every year in India.

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35 million broiler sold every month. Ranks 3 rd in egg production. 5 th in broiler production in the world. Indian poultry industry invest Rs. 70 billion and a turn over of Rs. 95 billion on retail. Produce 60 billion eggs i.e. 3%of GNP. Produce 450 million broilers i.e.10% of GNP attributes to livestock products.

Management of broiler chickens:

Management of broiler chickens Broiler production is quite different from its counterpart egg production in respect of : birds nutritional requirements, housing requirements, processing and marketing of final products etc . However, the basic principles of poultry production management are similar.

requirements for efficient broiler production::

requirements for efficient broiler production: Housing broiler houses should provide Comfort Safety,Security and protection from environment,predators,etc Convenience of operation and houses should be economic.

Some important points to be considered regarding broiler house:

Some important points to be considered regarding broiler house Provisions should be made to modify the air circulation as the birds grow, and the fresh air should be circulated but the house should be free from direct drafts. The broiler house should be located in such a way that it should be readily accessible to power, water supply and sewage. Ground elevation should be higher than surrounding ground level to permit good water drainage from the buildings. There should be a road connection from the houses to the highway.

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Houses should be economical, yet substantial enough to last many years with a minimum of maintenance. Houses should be in the East-West direction lengthwise. About 1-1½ sq ft of floor space should be provided per bird up to 6 weeks of age. The width of house should not exceed more than 30-35 ft and may be of sufficient length for the desired bird capacity. Houses should have concrete floor.

ii. Litter:

ii. Litter Broilers are generally reared on deep litter system. The floor of the house is covered with litter material such as saw dust, rice husk, wheat straw, wood shavings, dried leaves etc. Litter is used for the purpose of keeping birds clean and comfortable . It absorbs moisture from the droppings and then gives this moisture to the air brought in by ventilation The litter should be free from mould, injurious materials and reasonably free from dust. Cover the litter with paper for first few days so that chicks may not eat the litter material

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Litter should be kept in good dry condition by stirring and turning at frequent intervals. Remove wet litter if any and add fresh litter material. Initially, the depth of litter should be about 2-3 inches and if required, it can be increased by adding 1-2 inches of fresh litter after 3-4 weeks. Use fresh litter for every new batch of chicks.

iii. Temperature:

iii. Temperature Maintenance of proper temperature is very important. During first week, the temp. should be 95F at the outer edge of the brooder. The temp. is reduced by 5F every week until 70F is reached. For best feed efficiency with good growth, a room temp. of 75F is recommended. For providing heat to the chicks, electrical brooders and gas brooders are most commonly used. Brooder guards should be used to keep the chicks confined to the brooding area. Avoid temp. below 80F during the first 2 weeks and over 85F after 4 weeks. Temp. fluctuation should be watched carefully.

iv. Ventilation:

iv. Ventilation The main function of ventilation is to maintain oxygen, keep carbon dioxide level low, remove moisture and ammonia from the building and maintain suitable temperatures. Air movement requirements are best determined by observing comfort of the birds, litter condition and odour build up. Poor ventilation results in accumulation of ammonia and leads to wet litter problems. Ammonia fumes from wet litter and droppings may give obnoxious odour and may retard the growth of chicks. Wet litter may lead to outbreak of diseases. Proper ventilation requires considerable management, because of large variations in the exterior temp. from time to time and increasing requirements of birds as they grow. During first week, excessive ventilation should be avoided. A rapid rate of air change at this time is neither necessary nor desirable as there is danger of chilling.

v. Relative Humidity :

v. Relative Humidity Optimum humidity levels reduce dust, and promote better feathering and growth. A relative humidity of 50-60% is optimum. High humidity creates the problem of wet litter while very low humidity may cause dusty litter resulting in respiratory trouble and poor feathering. When very dry and dusty conditions prevail during summer, it may be advantageous to spray with a fine mist using fogging nozzles to bring relative humidity to desirable level.

vi. Light:

vi. Light Lights are used to encourage feed consumption and optimum growth, and to prevent chicks from piling or stampeding when scared. It may be desirable to provide 24 hours of light daily for first 2-3 weeks during brooding period. This helps to prevent pile-ups. After this period, 23 hours light programme is recommended. A 60 watt bulb is sufficient for 200 sq. ft. area. Light should be uniformly distributed in the poultry shed.

vii. Feeding:

vii. Feeding Since feed constitutes about 65-70% of the total cost, it is important to give special attention to it. Broiler birds are fed with two types of ration i.e. broiler starter and broiler finisher Former ration is fed up to 4 weeks of age and later can be continued till the marketing age. Broiler starter ration should have 23% crude protein and 2800 kcal ME/ kg while finisher ration should have 20% crude protein and 2900 kcal ME/ kg. Besides protein and energy levels, ration should have adequate amount of various amino acids, minerals and vitamins.

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For first 3-4 days, feed may be provided on the paper or flat plates. This allows the chicks to find feed easily. Feed should also be provided in the chick feeders at the same time so that the chicks learn to eat from the feeders too. Provide adequate feeder space and the feeders should be uniformly distributed in the house. For linear feeders, provide 2 inch feeder space per bird up to 3 weeks of age and later on provide 3 inch feeder space per bird. When circular type feeders are used, about 25% less feeder space as compared to linear feeders, will be enough. Lips of the chick feeders should be about 2 inch in height from the level of the litter so that chicks can easily reach up to the feed. Use bigger feeders as the chicks grow. Height of the feeders should be up to the back of bird

viii. Waterers:

viii. Waterers It is important that broiler birds have an adequate supply of fresh and clean water. Watering devices should keep the water clean, could be easily cleaned and prevent spillage of water from the containers. Use small chick waterers for first 2 week and replace these by bigger waterers as the chicks grow. Provide sufficient waterer space i.e. ½ inch per bird for up to about 2 weeks of age and later on about 1-1½ inch per bird. Waterers should be uniformly distributed in the poultry shed. All waterers should be cleaned and washed daily.

ix. Prevention and control of disease:

ix. Prevention and control of disease Vaccinate the chicks against various diseases (Marek’s disease, Ranikhet disease and Gumboro disease) as per schedule. Keep the litter in good and dry condition. Use effective drugs in feed or water for prevention and control of diseases. Provide clean water and well balanced ration to the birds. Feeders and waterers should be cleaned regularly. Clean and disinfect the houses thoroughly for every new batch of chicks.

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Some important disease of poultry AVIAN INFLUENZA COCCIDIOSIS ROUNDWORMS LICE, MITES MAREK'S DISEASE POX RESPIRATORY DISEASES Infectious Bronchitis Newcastle Disease Infectious Laryngotracheitis

Basic broiler management tips:

Basic broiler management tips Broiler house should be thoroughly cleaned, dried and disinfected at least a week before the chicks are to be received. Decide the number of brooders, feeders and waterers to be used depending on the number of chicks. All the equipments should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Spread litter material on the floor. The depth of litter should be about 2 inches in the beginning. Make sure that the litter material is free from wood pieces, glass pieces, nails, thread pieces etc.

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5. Cover the litter material with old news papers or waste papers (2-3 layers). 6. Place brooders and arrange feeders and waterers properly. 7. Heat in the brooders should be turned on about 12 hours before the arrival of chicks so that desired temperature is achieved 8. Initially the temp. under the brooder should be 95 F. The temp. is measured about 2 inch above the litter and at the outer edge of the brooder.

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THANKS

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