SWINE FLU: SWINE FLU Dr Kais Louis Rayes Infectious Diseases Section Head PowerPoint Presentation: The new famous virus… Outbreaks Among Pigs: Outbreaks among pigs normally occur in colder weather months (late fall and winter) and sometimes with the introduction of new pigs into susceptible herds. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25% of animals showing antibody evidence of infection. Outbreaks Among Pigs Definition:: Swine influenza virus ( SIV ) refers to influenza cases that are caused by Orthomyxovirus endemic to pig populations. SIV strains isolated to date have been classified as one of the various subtypes of the genus Influenza virus A… Definition: Caused by Re-assortment of different strains: Caused by Re-assortment of different strains Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. MAP of H1N1 Swine Flu: MAP of H1N1 Swine Flu Swine Flu Differs from Human Flu: Swine Flu Differs from Human Flu The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1 viruses and, therefore, vaccines for human seasonal flu would not provide protection from H1N1 swine flu viruses!!! No Vaccines to Humans Yet!!!: No Vaccines to Humans Yet!!! There is no vaccine to protect humans from swine flu yet . The seasonal influenza vaccine will not provide protection against swine H1N1 virus. Present Swine Flu Strains: Present Swine Flu Strains At this time, there are 4 main influenza A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses. How do humans get exposed?: How do humans get exposed? Most commonly, cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). Documented cases of persons spreading swine flu to others. Does eating pork meat infect?: Does eating pork meat infect? No Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. Eating properly handled and cooked pork is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does with other bacteria and viruses. How Swine Flu presents in Humans: How Swine Flu presents in Humans The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza and include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Infected adults may present with atypical symptoms…: Infected adults may present with atypical symptoms… Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen Sudden dizziness Confusion Severe or persistent vomiting Case-definition as per CDC: Case-definition as per CDC A suspected case of S-OIV (swine-origin influenza virus) infection is defined as a person with acute febrile respiratory illness with onset : Within 7 days of close contact with a person who is a confirmed case of S-OIV infection or Within 7 days of travel to community where there are one or more confirmed cases of S-OIV infection or Resides in a community where there are one or more confirmed cases of S-OIV infection Diagnosis: Diagnosis To diagnose swine flu A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Treatment Recommendations in Swine Flu: Treatment Recommendations in Swine Flu Treatment is largely supportive. There are 4 different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the USA for the treatment of influenza: Amantidine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir . Proved Resistance at Present: Proved Resistance at Present Most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to Amantidine and Rimantadine. CDC Recommendations: CDC Recommendations CDC recommends at this time the use of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or Zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses … How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others? : How long can an infected person spread swine flu to others? People with swine influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. How long can viruses live outside the body? : How long can viruses live outside the body? We know that some viruses and bacteria can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like cafeteria tables, doorknobs and desks. Frequent hand washing will help you reduce the chance of getting contaminated from these common surfaces. Avoid close contact with people who are sick…: Avoid close contact with people who are sick… Aerosols spread the virus in any environment!!! Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.: Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs are often spread when people touch something that is contaminated with germs and then touch their eyes, noses or mouths. Stay home when you are sick!!!: Stay home when you are sick!!! You will help prevent others from catching your illness. Cover Your Mouth and Nose!: Cover Your Mouth and Nose! It may prevent those around you from getting sick! Clean your hands…: Clean your hands… Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs. Hand washing proved to be best procedure in prevention of majority of communicable diseases. Travel Advisory: Travel Advisory Unnecessary migration of people from epidemic and endemic areas to be reduced. Visit for Updates: www.cdc.gov: Visit for Updates: www.cdc.gov CDC (Center of Disease Control) updates the current information. PowerPoint Presentation: What’s next? GIRAFFE FLU??? PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU!!!